Sumulong V Guerrero

Sumulong v Hon. Guerrero and the NHA (GR L-48685; 1987) Cortes, J. Facts      On December 5, 1977 the National Housing Authority (NIIA) fil ed a complaint for expropriation of parcels of land covering approximately twenty five (25) hectares, (in Antipolo, Rizal) including the lots of petitioners Lorenzo Sumulong and Emilia Vidanes-Balaoing with an area of 6,667 square meters and 3,333 square meters respectively. The land sought to be expropriated were valued by the NHA at one peso (P1.00) per square meter adopting the market value fixed by the provincial assessor in accordance with presidential decrees prescribing the valuation of property in expropriation proceedings proceedings Together with the complaint was a motion for immediate possession of the properties. The NHA deposited the amount of P158,980.00 with the Philippine National Bank, representing the "total market value" of the subject twenty five hectares of land, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1224 which defines "the policy on the expropriation of private property for socialized housing upon payment of just compensation." Respondent Judge issued a writ of possession Petitioners challenge the orders of respondent respondent Judge and assailing the constitutionality of Pres. Decree No. 1224, as amended o The order was issued without notice and without hearing Pres. Decree l224, as amended, is unconstitutional for being violative of the due o process clause, specifically The Decree would allow the taking of property regardless of size and no matter how small the area to be expropriated; Socialized housing" for the purpose of condemnation proceeding, as defined in said Decree, is not really for a public purpose; The Decree violates procedural due process as it allows immediate taking of possession, control and disposition of property without giving the owner his day in court; The Decree would allow the taking of private property upon payment of unjust and unfair valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors; The Decree would deprive the courts of their judicial discretion to determine what would be the "just compensation" in each and every raise of expropriation.      Issue    Is “socialized housing” as defined in PD 1224 not public use since it will benefit only a handful of people? NO. people? NO. It is within the definition of public use Does PD 1224 allow the taking of private property upon payment of unjust and unfair valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors, depriving the courts of their judicial discretion to determine what would be "just compensation"? YES. compensation"? YES. Unconstitutional. Unconstitutional. Is PD 1224 violative of procedural due process as it allows immediate taking of possession, control and disposition of property without giving the owner his day in court? YES. Unconstitutional Judgment Writ of possession annulled. Case remanded to the court of origin for further proceedings to determine the compensation the petitioners are entitled to be paid  Ratio Public Use "Socialized housing" is defined by PD 1224 as, "the construction of dwelling units for the middle and lower class members of our society, including the construction of the supporting infrastructure and other facilities" The "public use" requirement for a and exercise of the power of eminent domain is a flexible and evolving concept  “There was a time when it was felt that a literal meaning should be attached to such a o requirement. Whatever project is undertaken must be for the public to enjoy, as in the       case of streets or parks. Otherwise, expropriation is not allowable. It is not anymore. As long as the purpose of the taking is public, then the power of eminent domain comes into play… It is accurate to state then that at present whatever may be beneficially employed for the general welfare satisfies the requirement of public use”  To the literal import of the term signifying strict use or employment by the public has been added the broader notion of indirect public benefit or advantage. urban renewal or redevelopment and the construction of low-cost housing is recognized as a public purpose, not only because of the expanded concept of public use but also because of specific provisions in the (1973) Constitution The state shall by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the o  private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. (Art. XIII, sec. 9) Housing is a basic human need. Shortage in housing is a matter of state concern since it directly and significantly affects public health, safety, the environment and in sum, the general welfare. The public character of housing measures does not change because units in housing projects cannot be occupied by all but only by those who satisfy prescribed qualifications. A beginning has to be made, for it is not possible to provide housing for are who need it, all at once. Petitioners further contend that Pres. Decree 1224, as amended, would allow the taking of "any private land" regardless of the size and no matter how small the area of the land to be expropriated. (In effect: there are larger lands owned by only a few landlords, why not take theirs first?) JM Tuason v Land Tenure Admin: he propriety of exercising the power of eminent o domain under Article XIII, section 4 of our Constitution cannot be determined on a purely quantitative or area basis. o Departed from the ruling in Guido vs. Rural Progress Administration which held that the test to be applied for a valid expropriation of private lands was the area of the land and not the number of people who stood to be benefited. Since then "there has evolved a clear pattern of adherence to the "number of people to be benefited test" Just compensation PD 1224 unconstitutional as it allows the taking of private property upon payment of unjust and unfair valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors Already ruled upon by this Court in the case of Ignacio vs. Guerrero which, incidentally, arose from the same expropriation complaint that led to this instant petition The provisions on just compensation found in Presidential Decree Nos. 1224, 1259 and 1313 are the same provisions found in Presidential Decree Nos. 76, 464, 794 and 1533 which were declared unconstitutional in Export Processing Zone All thirty vs. Dulay  o Just compensation means the value of the property at the time of the taking. It means a fair and full equivalent  for  for the loss sustained. ALL the facts as to the condition of the property and its surroundings, its improvements and capabilities, should be considered Tax values can serve as guides but cannot be absolute substitutes for just o compensation    Due Process Pres. Decree 1224, as amended, violates procedural due process as it allows immediate taking of possession, control and disposition of property without giving the owner his day in court has also been ruled upon in the Export Processing Zone Authority case It is violative of due process to deny to the owner the opportunity to prove that the o valuation in the tax documents is unfair or wrong. And it is repulsive to basic concepts of justice and fairness to allow the haphazard work of minor bureaucrat or clerk to absolutely prevail over the judgment of a court promulgated only after expert commissioners have actually viewed the property Before a writ of possession is issued by the Court in expropriation proceedings, the following requisites must be met: o (1) There must be a Complaint for expropriation sufficient in form and in substance;    o o (2) A provisional determination of just compensation for the properties sought to be expropriated must be made by the trial court on the basis of judicial (not legislative or executive) discretion; and (3) The deposit requirement under Section 2, Rule 67 must be complied with.
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Sumulong v Hon.

Guerrero and the NHA (GR L-48685; 1987)


Cortes, J.

Facts
On December 5, 1977 the National Housing Authority (NIIA) filed a complaint for expropriation
of parcels of land covering approximately twenty five (25) hectares, (in Antipolo, Rizal)
including the lots of petitioners Lorenzo Sumulong and Emilia Vidanes-Balaoing with an area of
6,667 square meters and 3,333 square meters respectively.
The land sought to be expropriated were valued by the NHA at one peso (P1.00) per square
meter adopting the market value fixed by the provincial assessor in accordance with
presidential decrees prescribing the valuation of property in expropriation proceedings
Together with the complaint was a motion for immediate possession of the properties. The
NHA deposited the amount of P158,980.00 with the Philippine National Bank, representing the
"total market value" of the subject twenty five hectares of land, pursuant to Presidential
Decree No. 1224 which defines "the policy on the expropriation of private property for
socialized housing upon payment of just compensation."
Respondent Judge issued a writ of possession
Petitioners challenge the orders of respondent Judge and assailing the constitutionality of
Pres. Decree No. 1224, as amended
o The order was issued without notice and without hearing
o Pres. Decree l224, as amended, is unconstitutional for being violative of the due
process clause, specifically
The Decree would allow the taking of property regardless of size and no matter
how small the area to be expropriated;
Socialized housing" for the purpose of condemnation proceeding, as
defined in said Decree, is not really for a public purpose;
The Decree violates procedural due process as it allows immediate taking of
possession, control and disposition of property without giving the owner his
day in court;
The Decree would allow the taking of private property upon payment of unjust
and unfair valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors;
The Decree would deprive the courts of their judicial discretion to determine
what would be the "just compensation" in each and every raise of
expropriation.

Issue
Is socialized housing as defined in PD 1224 not public use since it will benefit only a handful
of people? NO. It is within the definition of public use
Does PD 1224 allow the taking of private property upon payment of unjust and unfair
valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors, depriving the courts of their judicial
discretion to determine what would be "just compensation"? YES. Unconstitutional.
Is PD 1224 violative of procedural due process as it allows immediate taking of possession,
control and disposition of property without giving the owner his day in court? YES.
Unconstitutional

Judgment
Writ of possession annulled. Case remanded to the court of origin for further proceedings to
determine the compensation the petitioners are entitled to be paid

Ratio

Public Use
"Socialized housing" is defined by PD 1224 as, "the construction of dwelling units for the
middle and lower class members of our society, including the construction of the supporting
infrastructure and other facilities"
The "public use" requirement for a and exercise of the power of eminent domain is a flexible
and evolving concept
o There was a time when it was felt that a literal meaning should be attached to such a
requirement. Whatever project is undertaken must be for the public to enjoy, as in the
case of streets or parks. Otherwise, expropriation is not allowable. It is not anymore.
As long as the purpose of the taking is public, then the power of eminent domain
comes into play It is accurate to state then that at present whatever may be
beneficially employed for the general welfare satisfies the requirement of public use
To the literal import of the term signifying strict use or employment by the public has been
added the broader notion of indirect public benefit or advantage.
urban renewal or redevelopment and the construction of low-cost housing is recognized as a
public purpose, not only because of the expanded concept of public use but also because of
specific provisions in the (1973) Constitution
o The state shall by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the
private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will
make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged
and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote
adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such
program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. (Art. XIII, sec. 9)
Housing is a basic human need. Shortage in housing is a matter of state concern since it
directly and significantly affects public health, safety, the environment and in sum, the general
welfare. The public character of housing measures does not change because units in housing
projects cannot be occupied by all but only by those who satisfy prescribed qualifications. A
beginning has to be made, for it is not possible to provide housing for are who need it, all at
once.
Petitioners further contend that Pres. Decree 1224, as amended, would allow the taking of
"any private land" regardless of the size and no matter how small the area of the land to be
expropriated. (In effect: there are larger lands owned by only a few landlords, why not take
theirs first?)
o JM Tuason v Land Tenure Admin: he propriety of exercising the power of eminent
domain under Article XIII, section 4 of our Constitution cannot be determined on a
purely quantitative or area basis.
o Departed from the ruling in Guido vs. Rural Progress Administration which held that
the test to be applied for a valid expropriation of private lands was the area of the land
and not the number of people who stood to be benefited. Since then "there has
evolved a clear pattern of adherence to the "number of people to be benefited test"

Just compensation
PD 1224 unconstitutional as it allows the taking of private property upon payment of unjust
and unfair valuations arbitrarily fixed by government assessors
Already ruled upon by this Court in the case of Ignacio vs. Guerrero which, incidentally, arose
from the same expropriation complaint that led to this instant petition
The provisions on just compensation found in Presidential Decree Nos. 1224, 1259 and 1313
are the same provisions found in Presidential Decree Nos. 76, 464, 794 and 1533 which were
declared unconstitutional in Export Processing Zone All thirty vs. Dulay
o Just compensation means the value of the property at the time of the taking. It means
a fair and full equivalent for the loss sustained. ALL the facts as to the condition of the
property and its surroundings, its improvements and capabilities, should be considered
o Tax values can serve as guides but cannot be absolute substitutes for just
compensation

Due Process
Pres. Decree 1224, as amended, violates procedural due process as it allows immediate taking
of possession, control and disposition of property without giving the owner his day in court
has also been ruled upon in the Export Processing Zone Authority case
o It is violative of due process to deny to the owner the opportunity to prove that the
valuation in the tax documents is unfair or wrong. And it is repulsive to basic concepts
of justice and fairness to allow the haphazard work of minor bureaucrat or clerk to
absolutely prevail over the judgment of a court promulgated only after expert
commissioners have actually viewed the property
Before a writ of possession is issued by the Court in expropriation proceedings, the following
requisites must be met:
o (1) There must be a Complaint for expropriation sufficient in form and in substance;
o (2) A provisional determination of just compensation for the properties sought to be
expropriated must be made by the trial court on the basis of judicial (not legislative or
executive) discretion; and
o (3) The deposit requirement under Section 2, Rule 67 must be complied with.