Socialstudieschapter2governanceinsingapore-beforetestrevisionnotesfinalized-090817084344-phpapp02

Social Studies Elective Chapter 2 Governance in Singapore (Summary) Chapter 2.1: Guiding Principles of Governance Guiding Principle Leadership is Key Information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant Reward for Work and Work for Reward A Stake for Everyone, Opportunit ies for All 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Problems of Corrupt Leadership Principle of Selection unds / resources Honest and capable leadership Mismanagement of f unds Maintain stability  Ensure Singapore continues to Loss of support and respect f rom people grow. Pref erenti erential treatment given to cronies. Make right decisions, not popular decisions Moral courage and integrity (Good character) Do not occur by chance, need to select and groom Talent and ability is not enough incorruptibility as well. Examples: Principle of forward-looking uture challenges Look, plan ahead and anticipate f uture 1. NEWater (Recycling of sewage water, in anticipation Be prepared for challenging times of the end of water agreements with Malaysia. eguard resources for f uture uture Saf egu 2. Integrated Resorts: To boom tourist industry Open to new ideas and risk-taking, and stay relevant 3. Taking Risks: Encouraging Singaporeans to be in global world innovative and creative Be resilient in changing world conditions Capture growing markets. Principle of Meritocracy Meritocracy, a key part of this principle, means a system that rewards hard work and talent and encourages people to do well. Meritocracy thus helps to keep everybody in the society an equal opportunity to achieve their best and be rewarded for their performance. Bursaries, scholarships and money packages given out. Surplus f rom good economic growth given out to reward Singaporeans (progress package) Principle of transparency Involving people in decision making eedback Most religious groups were against the Integrated Resorts (only the casinos), thus Government took f eed and set boundaries size, entry requirements, etc. for casinos. Having a say in decision making develops in people a greater sense of belonging in the country; thus more opportunities have been created to involve people in decision-making. Policy decisions made to serve the needs of the nation may change to suit the needs of the people and the nation over time. Chapter 2.2: Managing Traffic in Singapore Guiding Principle Area Licensing Scheme Advantages Disadvantages It is one of the measures taken to control the f low of  traff ic ic. Under this scheme, motorists have to pay for the use of  certain roads in Singapore. Gantries were set up at the boundaries of city areas to monitor motorists driving into restricted zones. To support the ALS, other measures such as improving bus services, parking costs and park-and-ride zones were irst implemented, motorists When it was f irst were unhappy. Lots of costs were involved as this system was labour intensive. ul in However, over time the ALS was successf ul ensuring smooth traff ic ic f low and many people showed support for improved traff ic ic f low in the city area. Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www.freewebs.com/chiamdj . 1 Electronic Road Pricing Park  and   Ride Scheme Vehicle Quota System implemented. Uses technology to monitor and regulate traff ic f low. Motorists have to pay to use certain roads and expressways into the city at certain times of the day. In this way, peak hour traff ic has been successf ully controlled. Motorists park their vehicles at car parks outside the CBD. From there, they could use public transport to enter the city area. However, the scheme was still being used today as when time passes and needs of people change, measures failed in the past might work today. Introduced when there was a sharp increase in car ownership. Car buyers had to bid for the COE (Certif icate of  Entitlement) before they could purchase the car. Successf ul bidders will pay the quota premium to obtain the COE. The COE have to be renewed every 10 years. However, it was not very successf ul as motorists rather switch to the regular bus service or drove into the CBD before 7:30am as they thought it was not worthwhile to leave their cars parked outside the city all day. Can only control the number of cars on the road. Chapter 2.3: Changing times, changing needs  a case study of Singapores population policy (Summary) Period / Population Trend 1950  1960s: Period of  Baby Boom 1966  1980s: Family Planning 1980s  Present: Decreasing Birth Rate 1 Effects Causes Effects Peace and Stability More jobs Traditional Belief s (Larger families are more secure) Overcrowding (shortage of housing) Unhygienic Living Conditions Poor Healthcare services Little Education Few Jobs Higher Education of Women, Women marrying later Higher costs of  living Ageing Population Smaller def ence force Smaller pool of local talent Unattractive to multinational companies of  Government Policies Solutions 1 Set up the SFPPB to control the population growth. Seen later in the 60s and 80s. 3 Five-Year Plans The f irst plan in 1966 emphasized the need for smaller families. The second plan encouraged married couples to stop at 2. The third plan aimed to maintain the replacement level at 2.1. Contraception, legalizing abortion and numerous disincentives. Aimed to maintain the replacement level at 2.1 children 3 Child Policy Attracting Foreign Talent Pro-Family measure scheme In 1960s, an average of 5.79 babies was born to each woman. By 1980, the f ertility rate went down to 1.82. Limited success 3 or more if you can afford it. Singapore Planning and Population Board Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www.freewebs.com/chiamdj . 2 Chapter 2.3.1: Impact of an Ageing Population There are 3 main reasons for an ageing population a. Declining Birth Rate b. Post-War Baby Boomers (65 and over by 2030) c. Improving Living Conditions / Higher Standard of Living (Better healthcare / nutrition) Housing and living Arrangements Recreation Economy Healthcare Additional housing needed to meet the needs of the elderly. Granny f lats / Studio Apartment: Specially f itted to meet the needs of the elderly; Saf ter toilet f loor tiles (no slip) and grabpoles. More day-care centres and home nursing care would be required. Nurses and Counsellors would be required to look af ter the elderly. CPF and talents Physical Fitness centres All kinds of activities like hiking, travelling, sailing, etc. Negatively, Singapore can become unattractive to multi-national corporations Positively, the elderly can still contribute in numerous ways as they have skills and talents. Higher standard of Healthcare More resources will have to be spent on healthcare services The working population would also be aff ected as they have to pay increased taxes for expenditure for healthcare Chapter 2.3.2: Ways to Promote Population Growth in Singapore The 3-child Policy Parents were encouraged to have 3 or more children if they can afford it. Allowed the use of Medisave to pay for the delivery charges to relieve the f inancial burden of having children. The Graduate Mothers Scheme Pro-family measure scheme Encouraged marriages among graduates and encourage them to have more children. Attracting Foreign Talent Off ered in 2004 with regard to marriage and parenthood. Many measures were introduced to help couples decide to marry early and become parents. Examples: Equalized medical benef its, Grandparent caregiver relief , 5 day work week for Civil Service and Extended maternity leave. Helps to promote population growth as when foreigners come to live and work here, they develop an attachment and may take up permanent residence. Foreign talent is granted easier entry with subsidised housing and attractive education package for their children. Singapores economic success has also attracted more foreign talents to make Singapore their home. Produced better results as it has been the fastest way to promote population growth whereas the other policies take more time. Limited success  f ertility rate dropped back to 1.24 in 2004. Limited success due to the costs of  bringing up children, high medical and housing costs. Sparked off debate and unhappiness among the less-educated people. Success is not registered as people were not very receptive to these measures, became too pragmatic with having a small family due to the costs of bring up children, high medical and housing costs. Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www.freewebs.com/chiamdj . 3 Chapter 2.3.3: Meeting the challenges of an ageing population Senior citizens as assets to society: Many Helping Hands support: Individual responsibility: The challenge would be to ensure that Senior Citizens remain contributing members of society. As Senior Citizens have valuable skills, knowledge, talent and work experience, they can add value to public and private organizations and help boost family lif e. Everyone has a part to play in helping the nation prepare for an ageing population. By sharing the responsibility of taking care of the senior citizens, the government burden will be reduced as the government can rely less on increasing taxes as the individual, family and community are looking af ter the senior citizens. Healthy lifestyle: The individual is encouraged to maintain a healthy li f estyle by watching his diet and exercising regularly. Financial planning: All Singaporeans are encouraged to plan early and be f inancially prepared for lif e in their old age. Family support: Strong and stable families bring about social stability and harmony. Thus the government has introduced some measures to help strengthen family bonds such as the Senior Citizens Week and Grandparents day. Community help: The government provides subsidies to voluntary welfare organizations running communitybased services for senior citizens. Some community organizations provide f ree health checks and organize recreational activities for senior citizens to help them remain physic ally, mentally and socially active. Government Support:  Tribunal for the Maintenance for Parents: Parents can get the courts help to seek f inancial support f rom their children f rom their children who are capable but are not doing so.  Tax relief : Tax payers can claim an income tax deduction for taking care for the senior citizens, contributing to their own CPF accounts and grandparents taking care of children while parents work. Central Provident Fund (CPF): Savings in the special account (retirement, emergency and investment  purposes) and a retirement account.  Public housing schemes: First time buyers can get a housing grant if they buy a f lat in an area where their parents live. Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www.freewebs.com/chiamdj . 4
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