Psa-210

Auditing Standards and Practices Council Philippine Standard on Auditing 210 TERMS OF AUDIT ENGAGEMENTS PSA 210 PHILIPPINE STANDARD ON AUDITING 210 TERMS OF AUDIT ENGAGEMENTS CONTENTS Paragraphs Introduction 1-4 Audit Engagement Letters 5-9 Recurring Audits 10-11 Acceptance of a Change in Engagement 12-19 Effective Date 20-21 Acknowledgment 22-23 Appendix: Example of an an Audit Engagement Letter  Letter  Philippine Standards on Auditing (PSAs) are to be applied in the audit of financial statements. PSAs are also to be applied, adapted as necessary, to the audit of other information and to related services. PSAs contain the basic principles and essential procedures (identified in bold type black  lettering) together with related guidance in the form of explanatory and other material. The basic principles and essential procedures are to be interpreted in t he context of the explanatory and other material that provide guidance for their application. To understand and apply the basic principles and essential procedures together with the related guidance, it is necessary to consider the whole text of the PSA including explanatory and other  material contained in the PSA not just that text which is black lettered. In exceptional circumstances, an auditor may judge it necessary to depart from a PSA in order  to more effectively achieve achieve the objective of an audit. When such a situation arises, arises, the auditor  should be prepared to justify the departure. PSAs need only be applied t o material matters. PSA 210 The PSAs issued by the Auditing Standards Practices Council (Council) are based on International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) issued by the International Auditing Practices Committee of the International Federation of Accountants. The ISAs on which the PSAs are based are generally applicable to the public sector, including government business enterprises. However, the applicability of the equivalent PSAs PSAs on Philippine public sector entities has not been addressed addressed by the Council. It is the understanding of the Council that this matter will be addressed by the Commission on Audit itself in due course. Accordingly, the Public Sector Sector Perspective set out at the end of an ISA has not been been adopted into the PSAs. PSA 210 Terms of Audit Engagements Introduction 1. The purpose of this Philippine Standard on Auditing (PSA) is to establish standards and provide guidance on: (a) agreeing the terms of the engagement with the client; and (b) the auditor's response to a request by a client to change the terms of an engagement to one that provides a lower level of assurance. 2. The auditor and the client should agree on the terms of the engagement. The agreed terms would need to be recorded in an audit engagement letter or other  suitable form of contract. 3. This PSA is intended to assist the auditor in the preparation of engagement letters relating to audits of financial statements. The guidance is also applicable to related services. When other services such as tax, accounting, or management advisory services are to be provided, separate letters may be appropriate. 4. In some countries, the objective and scope of an audit and t he auditor's obligations are established by law. Even in those situations the auditor may still find audit engagement letters informative for their clients. Audit Engagement Letters 5. It is in the interest of both client and auditor that the auditor sends an engagement letter, preferably before the commencement of the engagement, to help in avoiding misunderstandings with respect respect to the engagement. engagement. The engagement letter documents and confirms the auditor's acceptance of the appointment, the objective and scope of the audit, the extent of the auditor's r esponsibilities to the client and the form of any reports. PSA 210 -2- Principal Contents 6. The form and content of audit engagement letters may vary for each client, but they would generally include reference to: • The objective of the audit of financial statements. • Management's responsibility for the financial statements. • • • • 7. The scope of the audit, including reference to applicable legislation, regulations, or pronouncements of professional bodies to which the auditor  adheres. The form of any reports or other communication of results of the engagement. The fact that because of the test nature and other inherent li mitations of an audit, together with the inherent limitations of any accounting and internal control system, there is an unavoidable risk that even some material misstatement may remain undiscovered. Unrestricted access to whatever records, documentation and other information requested in connection with the audit. The auditor may also wish to include in the letter: • • • • • Arrangements regarding the planning of the audit. Expectation of receiving from management written confirmation concerning representations made in connection with the audit. Request for the client to confirm the terms of the engagement by acknowledging receipt of the engagement letter or by affixing the client’s signature on the space provided for in the engagement letter for his conforme for the convenience of both the auditor and client. Description of any other letters or reports the auditor expects to issue to the client. Basis on which fees are computed and any billing arrangements. PSA 210 -3- 8. When relevant, the following points could also be made: • • • Arrangements concerning the involvement of other auditors and experts in some aspects of the audit. Arrangements concerning the involvement of internal auditors and other client staff. Arrangements to be made with the predecessor auditor, if any, in the case of  an initial audit. • Any restriction of the auditor's liability when such possibility exists. • A reference to any further agreements between the auditor and the client. An example of an audit engagement letter is set out in the Appendix. Audits of Components 9. When the auditor of a parent entity is also the auditor of its subsidiary, branch or  division (component), the factors that influence the decision whether to send a separate engagement letter to the component include: • Who appoints the auditor of the component. • Whether a separate audit report is to be issued on the component. • Legal requirements. • The extent of any work performed by other auditors. • Degree of ownership by parent. • Degree of independence of the component's management. PSA 210 -4- Recurring Audits 10. On recurring audits, the auditor audi tor should consider whether circumstances require the terms of the engagement to be revised and whether there is a need to remind the client of the existing terms of the engagement. 11. The auditor may decide not to send a new engagement letter each period. However, the following factors may make it appropriate to send a new letter: • Any indication that the client misunderstands the objective and scope of the audit. • Any revised or special terms of the engagement. • A recent change of senior management, board of directors or ownership. • A significant change in nature or size of the client's business. • Legal requirements and other government agencies’ pronouncements. Acceptance of a Change in Engagement 12. An auditor who, before the completion of the engagement, is requested to change the engagement to one which provides a lower level of assurance, should consider the appropriateness of doing so. 13. A request from the client for the auditor to change the engagement may result from a change in circumstances affecting the need for the service, a misunderstanding as to the nature of an audit or related service originally requested or a restriction on the scope of t he engagement, whether imposed by management or caused by circumstances. circumstances. The auditor would consider carefully the reason given for the request, particularly the implications of a restriction on the scope of the engagement. PSA 210 -5- 14. A change in circumstances that affects the entity's requirements or a misunderstanding concerning the nature of service originally requested would ordinarily be considered a reasonable basis for requesting a change in the engagement. In contrast a change would not be considered considered reasonable if it appeared that the change relates to information that is incorrect, i ncomplete or  otherwise unsatisfactory. 15. Before agreeing to change an audit engagement to a related service, an auditor  who was engaged to perform an audit in accordance with PSAs would consider, in addition to the above matters, any legal or contractual implications of the change. 16. If the auditor concludes, that there is r easonable justification to change the engagement and if the audit work performed complies with the PSAs applicable to the changed engagement, the report issued would be that appropriate for the revised terms of engagement. engagement. In order to avoid confusing confusing the reader, the report report would not include reference to: (a) the original engagement; or  (b) any procedures that may have been performed in the original engagement, except where the engagement is changed to an engagement to undertake agreed-upon procedures and thus reference to the procedures performed is a normal part of the report. 17. Where the terms of the engagement are changed, the auditor and the client should agree on the new terms. 18. The auditor should not agree to a change of engagement where there is no reasonable justification for doing so. An example might be an audit engagement where the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding receivables and the client asks for the engagement to be changed to a review engagement to avoid a qualified audit opinion or a disclaimer  of opinion. 19. If the auditor is unable to agree to a change of the engagement and is not permitted to continue the original engagement, the auditor should withdraw and consider whether there is any obligation, ob ligation, either contractual or otherwise, to report to other parties, part ies, such as the board of directors or shareholders, the circumstances necessitating the withdrawal. PSA 210 -6- Effective Date 20. This PSA shall be effective for audits of financial statements for periods ending on or after June 30, 2003. 21. This PSA supersedes Statement of Auditing Standards of the Philippines No. 3, Audit Engagement Letters, Letters, issued by the Auditing Standards and Practices Council. Acknowledgement 22. Engagements, is based on International Standard on This PSA, Terms of Audit Engagements, Auditing (ISA) 210 of the same title issued by the Inter national Auditing Practices Committee of the International Federation of Accountants. 23. This PSA differs from ISA 210 with respect to the deletion of the section on Public Sector Perspective included in ISA 210. Deleted: PSA 210 -7- This Philippine Standard on Auditing 210 was unanimously approved on October 29, 2001 by the members of the Auditing Standards and Practices Council: Benjamin R. Punongbayan, Chairman Antonio P. Acyatan, Vice Chairman Felicidad A. Abad David L. Balangue Eliseo A. Fernandez Nestorio C. Roraldo Arturo G. San Gabriel Joaquin P. Tolentino Joycelyn J. Villaflores Carlito B. Dimar  Froilan G. Ampil Jose T. Valencia Horace F. Dumlao Isagani O. Santiago Eugene T. Mateo Emma M. Espina Edijer A. Martinez PSA 210 Appendix Example of an Audit Engagement Letter The following letter is for use as a guide in conjunction with the considerations outlined in this PSA and will need to be varied according to individual requirements and circumstances. To the Board of Directors or the appropriate r epresentative of senior management: You have requested that we audit the balance sheet of ..................... as of ..............., and the related statements of income and and cash flows for the year year then ending. We are pleased to confirm our acceptance and our understanding of this engagement by means of this letter. Our audit will be made with the objective of our expressing an opinion on the financial statements. We will conduct our audit in accordance with Philippine Standards Standards on Auditing. Those Standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain r easonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatements. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Because of the test nature and other inherent limitations of an audit, together with the inherent limitations of any accounting and internal control system, there is an unavoidable risk that even some material misstatements may remain undiscovered. In addition to our report on the financial statements, we expect to provide you with a separate letter concerning any material weaknesses in accounting and internal control systems which come to our notice. We remind you that the responsibility for the preparation of financial statements including adequate disclosure is t hat of the management of the company. This includes the maintenance of adequate accounting records and internal controls, the selection and application of accounting policies, and the safeguarding of the assets of the company. As part of our audit process, we will request from management written confirmation concerning representations made to us in connection with the audit. PSA 210 Appendix -2- We look forward to full cooperation with your staff and we trust that t hey will make available to us whatever records, documentation and other information are requested in connection with our audit. Our fees, which will be billed as work work progresses, are based on the time required by the individuals assigned to the engagement plus out-of-pocket expenses. Individual hourly rates vary according to the degree of responsibility involved and the experience and skill required. This letter will be effective for future years unless it is terminated, amended or  superseded. Please sign and return the attached copy of this letter to indicate that i t is in accordance with your understanding of the arrangements for our audit of the financial statements. XYZ & Co. Acknowledged on behalf of  ABC Company by (signed) ...................... Name and Title Date
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Auditing Standards and Practices Council

Philippine Standard on Auditing 210

TERMS OF AUDIT ENGAGEMENTS
PSA 210

PHILIPPINE STANDARD ON AUDITING 210
TERMS OF AUDIT ENGAGEMENTS

CONTENTS

Paragraphs

Introduction 1-4

Audit Engagement Letters 5-9

Recurring Audits 10-11

Acceptance of a Change in Engagement 12-19

Effective Date 20-21

Acknowledgment 22-23

Appendix: Example of an Audit Engagement Letter

Philippine Standards on Auditing (PSAs) are to be applied in the audit of financial statements.
PSAs are also to be applied, adapted as necessary, to the audit of other information and to
related services.

PSAs contain the basic principles and essential procedures (identified in bold type black
lettering) together with related guidance in the form of explanatory and other material. The
basic principles and essential procedures are to be interpreted in the context of the explanatory
and other material that provide guidance for their application.

To understand and apply the basic principles and essential procedures together with the related
guidance, it is necessary to consider the whole text of the PSA including explanatory and other
material contained in the PSA not just that text which is black lettered.

In exceptional circumstances, an auditor may judge it necessary to depart from a PSA in order
to more effectively achieve the objective of an audit. When such a situation arises, the auditor
should be prepared to justify the departure.

PSAs need only be applied to material matters.
PSA 210

The PSAs issued by the Auditing Standards Practices Council (Council) are based on
International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) issued by the International Auditing Practices
Committee of the International Federation of Accountants.

The ISAs on which the PSAs are based are generally applicable to the public sector, including
government business enterprises. However, the applicability of the equivalent PSAs on
Philippine public sector entities has not been addressed by the Council. It is the understanding
of the Council that this matter will be addressed by the Commission on Audit itself in due
course. Accordingly, the Public Sector Perspective set out at the end of an ISA has not been
adopted into the PSAs.
PSA 210

Terms of Audit Engagements

Introduction

1. The purpose of this Philippine Standard on Auditing (PSA) is to establish
standards and provide guidance on:

(a) agreeing the terms of the engagement with the client; and

(b) the auditor's response to a request by a client to change the terms of an
engagement to one that provides a lower level of assurance.

2. The auditor and the client should agree on the terms of the engagement. The
agreed terms would need to be recorded in an audit engagement letter or other
suitable form of contract.

3. This PSA is intended to assist the auditor in the preparation of engagement letters
relating to audits of financial statements. The guidance is also applicable to
related services. When other services such as tax, accounting, or management
advisory services are to be provided, separate letters may be appropriate.

4. In some countries, the objective and scope of an audit and the auditor's
obligations are established by law. Even in those situations the auditor may still
find audit engagement letters informative for their clients.

Audit Engagement Letters

5. It is in the interest of both client and auditor that the auditor sends an engagement
letter, preferably before the commencement of the engagement, to help in
avoiding misunderstandings with respect to the engagement. The engagement
letter documents and confirms the auditor's acceptance of the appointment, the
objective and scope of the audit, the extent of the auditor's responsibilities to the
client and the form of any reports.
PSA 210

-2-

Principal Contents

6. The form and content of audit engagement letters may vary for each client, but
they would generally include reference to:

• The objective of the audit of financial statements.

• Management's responsibility for the financial statements.

• The scope of the audit, including reference to applicable legislation,
regulations, or pronouncements of professional bodies to which the auditor
adheres.

• The form of any reports or other communication of results of the engagement.

• The fact that because of the test nature and other inherent limitations of an
audit, together with the inherent limitations of any accounting and internal
control system, there is an unavoidable risk that even some material
misstatement may remain undiscovered.

• Unrestricted access to whatever records, documentation and other information
requested in connection with the audit.

7. The auditor may also wish to include in the letter:

• Arrangements regarding the planning of the audit.

• Expectation of receiving from management written confirmation concerning
representations made in connection with the audit.

• Request for the client to confirm the terms of the engagement by
acknowledging receipt of the engagement letter or by affixing the client’s
signature on the space provided for in the engagement letter for his conforme
for the convenience of both the auditor and client.

• Description of any other letters or reports the auditor expects to issue to the
client.

• Basis on which fees are computed and any billing arrangements.
PSA 210

-3-

8. When relevant, the following points could also be made:

• Arrangements concerning the involvement of other auditors and experts in
some aspects of the audit.

• Arrangements concerning the involvement of internal auditors and other client
staff.

• Arrangements to be made with the predecessor auditor, if any, in the case of
an initial audit.

• Any restriction of the auditor's liability when such possibility exists.

• A reference to any further agreements between the auditor and the client.

An example of an audit engagement letter is set out in the Appendix.

Audits of Components

9. When the auditor of a parent entity is also the auditor of its subsidiary, branch or
division (component), the factors that influence the decision whether to send a
separate engagement letter to the component include:

• Who appoints the auditor of the component.

• Whether a separate audit report is to be issued on the component.

• Legal requirements.

• The extent of any work performed by other auditors.

• Degree of ownership by parent.

• Degree of independence of the component's management.
PSA 210

-4-

Recurring Audits

10. On recurring audits, the auditor should consider whether circumstances
require the terms of the engagement to be revised and whether there is a
need to remind the client of the existing terms of the engagement.

11. The auditor may decide not to send a new engagement letter each period.
However, the following factors may make it appropriate to send a new letter:

• Any indication that the client misunderstands the objective and scope of the
audit.

• Any revised or special terms of the engagement.

• A recent change of senior management, board of directors or ownership.

• A significant change in nature or size of the client's business.

• Legal requirements and other government agencies’ pronouncements.

Acceptance of a Change in Engagement

12. An auditor who, before the completion of the engagement, is requested to
change the engagement to one which provides a lower level of assurance,
should consider the appropriateness of doing so.

13. A request from the client for the auditor to change the engagement may result
from a change in circumstances affecting the need for the service, a
misunderstanding as to the nature of an audit or related service originally
requested or a restriction on the scope of the engagement, whether imposed by
management or caused by circumstances. The auditor would consider carefully
the reason given for the request, particularly the implications of a restriction on
the scope of the engagement.
PSA 210

-5-

14. A change in circumstances that affects the entity's requirements or a
misunderstanding concerning the nature of service originally requested would
ordinarily be considered a reasonable basis for requesting a change in the
engagement. In contrast a change would not be considered reasonable if it
appeared that the change relates to information that is incorrect, incomplete or
otherwise unsatisfactory.

15. Before agreeing to change an audit engagement to a related service, an auditor
who was engaged to perform an audit in accordance with PSAs would consider, in
addition to the above matters, any legal or contractual implications of the change.

16. If the auditor concludes, that there is reasonable justification to change the
engagement and if the audit work performed complies with the PSAs applicable
to the changed engagement, the report issued would be that appropriate for the
revised terms of engagement. In order to avoid confusing the reader, the report
would not include reference to:

(a) the original engagement; or

(b) any procedures that may have been performed in the original engagement,
except where the engagement is changed to an engagement to undertake
agreed-upon procedures and thus reference to the procedures performed is
a normal part of the report.

17. Where the terms of the engagement are changed, the auditor and the client
should agree on the new terms.

18. The auditor should not agree to a change of engagement where there is no
reasonable justification for doing so. An example might be an audit
engagement where the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit
evidence regarding receivables and the client asks for the engagement to be
changed to a review engagement to avoid a qualified audit opinion or a disclaimer
of opinion.

19. If the auditor is unable to agree to a change of the engagement and is not
permitted to continue the original engagement, the auditor should withdraw
and consider whether there is any obligation, either contractual or otherwise,
to report to other parties, such as the board of directors or shareholders, the
circumstances necessitating the withdrawal.
PSA 210

-6-

Effective Date

20. This PSA shall be effective for audits of financial statements for periods ending
on or after June 30, 2003.

21. This PSA supersedes Statement of Auditing Standards of the Philippines No. 3,
Audit Engagement Letters, issued by the Auditing Standards and Practices
Council. Deleted:

Acknowledgement

22. This PSA, Terms of Audit Engagements, is based on International Standard on
Auditing (ISA) 210 of the same title issued by the International Auditing Practices
Committee of the International Federation of Accountants.

23. This PSA differs from ISA 210 with respect to the deletion of the section on
Public Sector Perspective included in ISA 210.
PSA 210

-7-

This Philippine Standard on Auditing 210 was unanimously approved on October 29,
2001 by the members of the Auditing Standards and Practices Council:

Benjamin R. Punongbayan, Chairman Antonio P. Acyatan, Vice Chairman

Felicidad A. Abad David L. Balangue

Eliseo A. Fernandez Nestorio C. Roraldo

Arturo G. San Gabriel Joaquin P. Tolentino

Joycelyn J. Villaflores Carlito B. Dimar

Froilan G. Ampil Jose T. Valencia

Horace F. Dumlao Isagani O. Santiago

Eugene T. Mateo Emma M. Espina

Edijer A. Martinez
PSA 210
Appendix

Example of an Audit Engagement Letter

The following letter is for use as a guide in conjunction with the considerations outlined
in this PSA and will need to be varied according to individual requirements and
circumstances.

To the Board of Directors or the appropriate representative of senior management:

You have requested that we audit the balance sheet of ..................... as of ..............., and
the related statements of income and cash flows for the year then ending. We are pleased
to confirm our acceptance and our understanding of this engagement by means of this
letter. Our audit will be made with the objective of our expressing an opinion on the
financial statements.

We will conduct our audit in accordance with Philippine Standards on Auditing. Those
Standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about
whether the financial statements are free of material misstatements. An audit includes
examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the
financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and
significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial
statement presentation.

Because of the test nature and other inherent limitations of an audit, together with the
inherent limitations of any accounting and internal control system, there is an
unavoidable risk that even some material misstatements may remain undiscovered.

In addition to our report on the financial statements, we expect to provide you with a
separate letter concerning any material weaknesses in accounting and internal control
systems which come to our notice.

We remind you that the responsibility for the preparation of financial statements
including adequate disclosure is that of the management of the company. This includes
the maintenance of adequate accounting records and internal controls, the selection and
application of accounting policies, and the safeguarding of the assets of the company. As
part of our audit process, we will request from management written confirmation
concerning representations made to us in connection with the audit.
PSA 210
Appendix

-2-

We look forward to full cooperation with your staff and we trust that they will make
available to us whatever records, documentation and other information are requested in
connection with our audit. Our fees, which will be billed as work progresses, are based
on the time required by the individuals assigned to the engagement plus out-of-pocket
expenses. Individual hourly rates vary according to the degree of responsibility involved
and the experience and skill required.

This letter will be effective for future years unless it is terminated, amended or
superseded.

Please sign and return the attached copy of this letter to indicate that it is in accordance
with your understanding of the arrangements for our audit of the financial statements.

XYZ & Co.
Acknowledged on behalf of
ABC Company by
(signed)
......................
Name and Title
Date