STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN
Approved: ____________________________ Dr. Heather C. Galloway Director, University Honors Program
Approved: ____________________________ Dr. Hegde Department of Family Consumer Science Supervising Professor
STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN HONORS THESIS Presented to the Honors Committee of Texas State University-San Marcos In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Graduation in the University Honors Program
By Elizabeth Gay Hunt San Marcos, Texas May 2009
STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN
A museum is a place to discover, explore and learn about the past, present and future of creativity, as well as history. Lighting plays a significant role in developing interaction between humans and museum artifacts in one defined space. " Museums are places where lighting design is critical to the overall experience”(Lowe,43, 2009). Lighting is essential for human interaction in a space. Technical illumination research lays a foundation to conduct analysis in a variety of museums. This research component is significant to understand the complexity and various facets of overall museum lighting design. This study evaluates both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of lighting design in four museums. Psychological, physiological and experiential components are observed in these museums’ environments to analyze lighting design within its exhibits. My observations and knowledge gained by studying these museums help influence and enhance the design of the Cedar Hill Museum of History.
This Honor Thesis is dedicated in memory of my mother, Carolyn T. Hunt. She instilled in me the idea that we live a short time on Earth. She often said, “We are given talents that we must give back to the community and help others.” The Cedar Hill Museum of History lighting design is a reflection of how she contributed to the community of Cedar Hill and helped mold the community into what is today. My mother inspired me to explore my creativity as child. With this inspiration, I have followed my passion of designing and teaching. I would not be the outgoing person that I am without her constant love, patience and strength. In addition to my mother, Harry Duff Hunt III and Kristofer Duff Hunt are two personal heroes who have given me endless amounts of love, support and encouragement to be the best “Busybeth” that I can be. And, finally, I am very grateful for Dr. Asha Hegde Neizgoda. She came into my life at a critical time when I was struggling with how I fit into the “design world.” She is a life-changing mentor who has given me opportunities for self discovery and personal growth. Dr. Neizgoda has challenged me to open my eyes to my passion– Lighting Design.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT..............................................................................................4 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................7 LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................................................................7 MUSEUM ANALYSIS..............................................................................................19 LIGHTING DESIGN.................................................................................................32 FIGURES................................................................................................40 DEFINITIONS..........................................................................................51 REFERENCES.........................................................................................53
explore and learn. Lighting is a critical component in a museum environment because the space enables visitors to see objects. as well as preserve the condition of artifacts. the role of light is an essential part of creating an atmosphere prime for discovery. Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) provides parameters and standards for lighting design in a museum to ensure safety. experience new sights and react to the surrounding environment. environments have two types of light–natural and artificial. Daylight Museum designs incorporate daylight because humans relate to nature.
Introduction The purpose of my thesis is to study qualitative and quantitative aspects of museum lighting design in existing installations. The literature encompasses qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of lighting in a museum. Lighting plays a significant role in developing interaction between humans and museum artifacts in one defined space. explore and learn about history in a creative environment. preserve artifacts. The museum design will guide the visitors to discover. A brief review of literature will help understand this thesis. Typically." The goal of a museum is to create an interactive experience for the guests. "Natural Light can be used to great effect to dramatize and enliven the design of 6
. For a museum. This can be a very difficult balancing act between meeting preservation needs and forming interactive experiences that achieve the goal of the museum–a place to discover. while also preserving artifacts. and create an interactive experience for guests of all ages.
Various heights and room depths also can affect human perception of space. and their 7
. The amount of daylight penetrating the museum interior must be given serious consideration to understand how natural light impacts the space. 30. guests may experience discomfort while interacting in the museum. the time of day and a building’s position are factors directly impacting lighting design and how humans experience the space. The placement of windows or glazings and the available amount of natural light gives the design variety. Light defines a space within a building’s design. The amount of daylight and how natural light is filtered into a space will create several different effects in a specific space. the space can feel confined and stagnant. Materials and finishes that are too shiny or reflective create glare.
any building (De Chiara. acclimation and delineation in the space should be analyzed closely. if a room is small with high ceilings and a punch of daylight. interior finishes can create more reflective surfaces and cause a negative effect. season. 1996). glare. 1996). 690. IESNA has researched and made factors that “affect the final luminance produced by architectural surfaces and daylight” (RP-30-96. When daylight is introduced in a space. it will be perceived as being larger. Scale and proportion are important considerations. If there is glare or too much reflective light. Factors such as reflection. 2007). Daylight always fluctuates and often is fused in interactive spaces. 30. Cloud cover. The “ceiling height and room depth” directly correlate to the amount of daylight absorbed and explore the intent of light in the space (RP30-96. If a room is large with low ceilings and little daylight. Interior materials and finishes should be selected to contribute to the overall aesthetic of the space. “Reflecting characteristics of the interior surfaces” is another factor with IESNA standards. For example.
Artificial Illumination Several types of artificial light sources are used in interior applications to provide light for visibility. Mr. light levels can be higher. 14. Therefore. Lindgren. cold cathode and 8
. daylight and preservation of artifacts usually conflict and must sometimes compromise for a museum design’s sake. Typical interior artificial light sources include incandescent. accent and decoration. Natural light has a high light output and contains very high concentrations of Ultraviolet rays. light exposure will affect artifacts. In addition. Thus. 2009). HID. this light has negative impact on artifacts. When artifacts are made of metal or leather. Mr. Texas. Lindgren also says that the museum is more sensitive to light levels on documents and artifacts and the museum has to be very careful with preservation. Lindgren tries to protect the museums’ contents and keeps light levels closer to four to five fc because the museum does not own them (Lindgren. a lighting and exhibit technician.
experience will be greatly altered. In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History in Austin. 1996). While daylight adds to the overall ambiance of the space. tasks. IESNA standards range from five to 30 foot-candles depending on the type of artifact (RP-30-96. Lighting design needs to encompass the dynamics of daylight and use light properly to assist in creating an interactive and comfortable museum experience. fiber optics. artifacts and the museum dictate how daylight can be used in the space. says Mr. These UV rays are known to damage textiles and artifacts. fluorescent. artifacts are all borrowed and not owned by the museum.
collection storage is five footcandles and collection handling is twenty to fifty footcandles. The type of artifacts in the museum is a significant detail in order to establish the amount of light level and light exposure to the objects. With indirect lighting. fluorescent lamps are used to diffuse illumination quality. The location and purpose of the light. storage and handling. along with the type of light source. cabinet and under-shelf lighting. HID and PARs are the most common for general lighting. Light Levels Light levels are based on the visibility as well as the accessibility in the museum space. The overall objective in a museum’s lighting design is to light individual objects with consideration to the sensitivity of the object and how guests will view it. Incandescent lamps are generally used for ambient and accent lighting with track luminaires. tungsten halogen. In museums. According to IESNA standards for museums. 44. incandescent. become crucial in providing the correct amount of light and the lamp properties for interior applications in the museum. Flood lighting typically consists of recessed down lights or track-mounted fixtures with incandescent. The quantitative measurements of light in museums are determined by the exhibit type. compact fluorescents. Incandescent. tungsten halogen and HID light sources (RP-30-96. tungsten Halogen. compact fluorescent. metal halide and fiber optic are recommended to use in case. collection. In the IESNA’s required light levels. If the 9
. Accent lighting include PAR-type incandescent and tungsten halogen. fiber optic and HID are the most common light sources. 1996).
Sensitive objects have fifteen to twenty footcandles. 1996). diffuse. 12. globes and chandeliers. 13. Styles of Luminaires Luminaires are characterized by the way light is distributed. (RP-30-96. There are several other luminaire types including: direct. asymmetric uprights. Direct luminaires emit light downward. Diffuse luminaires emit light in all directions uniformly. 2007). Direct signage is twenty to thirty footcandles (RP-30-96. 690. Guests’ safety and preservation of artifacts are critical in an exhibit’s design. “Light fixtures are the luminaires that are permanently attached to the building” (Karlen. Indirect luminaires emit light upward that bounces from the ceiling into a space. 10. 2004). 1996). downlights and adjustable. Ambient lighting usually consists of five to 30 footcandles. These include most types of recessed lighting with downlights and troffers. visitor pathways and text panels all are required to be ten to thirty footcandles. (RP-30-96. Within the interior space.
exhibit is very sensitive. While older adults need a minimum of ten fc. 11. ramps and stairs. Another factor in lighting a museum is the accessible light levels throughout the exhibits ranges from five to thirty footcandles. the footcandle requirement ranges from five to ten. These include most bare lamps. direct/indirect. sconces and some portable lamps. indirect. Less sensitive objects can have thirty to fifty footcandles (De Chiara. 1996). Many styles include suspended luminaires. An individual less than forty years old needs five to twenty fc to adequately see details within an interior space. 10
. The age of viewers and light levels directly impact the experience of the museum.
The eye has the ability to perceive things and operate under very bright lighting conditions. Changes from high to low luminance can affect guests in the museum depending on age and visual difficulties. floodlights and accent lights. might it difficult to see the exhibit" (Wilson. The eye also has the ability to change shape to focus on objects and make meaning out of the information received. IESNA also suggests another criterion of observation that says the 11
. 32). as well as adapt to moonlight and mid-day sunlight. 1996). In order for a human to see an object and its details. Direct/ indirect also can be semi-direct or semi-indirect according to the proportions of up and down light. "Adaptation is eight minutes adequate for the eye to adapt and one hours in extreme conditions between high to low light levels" (RP-3096. This process is called accommodation. (Karlen. These include track lights. This process is not instantaneous. Visual Adaptation and Accommodation The human eye is highly adaptive. "There are limits to the range of luminance that the eye can adapt to at any one time.
Direct/indirect luminaires emit light upward and downward. such as away from a wall. Wall washers are form of direct luminaire with stronger distribution to one side so as to illuminate a wall. and areas where brightness is too high will become glare. This unique ability is called adaption. Visual adaption is the amount of time it takes a human eye to acclimatize to new surroundings. Asymmetric luminaires are usually designed for special applications. These include many types of suspended luminaires as well as table lamps. 12 & 59. Asymmetric uplights are indirect luminaires with stronger distribution in one direction. Adjustable luminaires are generally direct luminaires that can be adjusted to throw light in directions other than down. a lighting designer needs to analyze how the guests will interact with the exhibits to properly take visual adaptation into consideration. 13. 2004). but not to the side.
. "Glare is the bright light that can interfere with visual perception (Egan. 2002). Direct glare is the bright light source directly impacting the field of vision. The light sources must be farther away from the case with a wide flood fixture to widely disperse the light without direct aim on the glass case (Lingren. The smaller or more detailed an object is. the more light is required.
"display of the objects should be the brightest elements in view" (RP-30-96 59. Lingren explained to the issue with glare and the challenge to highlight display cases without glare or shadowing. glare can cause severe problems and interfere with the interactive experience. Glare In addition to visual adaptation. Therefore. In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History to alleviate glare problems. 27. Reflective glare is the reflection of an image from a light source on specific shiny surfaces. Mr. 1996). 2009). but the amount of luminance and difference from one level to another is a significant factor in lighting of a museum. There are two types of glare. 2002). An example of this would include a down light aimed on the granite floor that makes a bright spot (Egan. In museums. the human eye has the ability to be very receptive to light. This includes a fixture aimed in direct line of sight. eyes can perceive conditions that are too bright and cause discomfort. 27.
color consistency is very important for exhibits and displays to appear true to color. 4-5. Retail. The scale is from zero to 100.
LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS To have a successful lighting design. and purpose. Natural light is 100. An understanding of these factors allows the lighting designer to fuse lighting elements with an architectural designed space to create an effective and functional design for humans to interests and experience the space. the artifacts and displays are the primary focus. work spaces and museums need a high CRI for the human eye to react favorably. viewing angles. In addition to CRI. Color rendered. CRI is critical depending on the intent of the space. objects. texture. 12. lighting designers have particular considerations that affect lighting on space. Within museums. retail and museum spaces. color temperature. In the context of interior museums. which has the best color rendering properties. form. Color Rendering Index Color Rendering Index (CRI) describes the true hue that appears from a light source. color consistency should be evaluated in interior spaces. 2004). “Color rendition depends on the lamp 13
. The background color or color surrounding the objects can alter the color viewed on the artifacts (RP-30-96. The materials and finishes will appear different under different types of artificial light sources. the displays and exhibits should have a high CRI and general lighting can have a lower CRI (Karlen. 1996). The Lighting Basics Design suggests 80-100 CRI for work. In a museum. layered light and maintenance are all factors that contribute to the whole.
2004). 80. 80. Several lamp types can compensate for color shifting and distortion. Incandescent lamps render red and yellow hues more truly than blue. blue will appear dull blue. reflective properties of the surface and context” ( Egan.000K. 2004). Museums’ goals are to preserve artifacts and educate viewers about the historical past.500K. 2002). Kelvin is the appropriate unit for color temperature with a scale from zero to 8. The higher color temperature is suggested in special-applications lighting where color discrimination is significant (Karlen. This color temperature is perceived as being “warm and cozy. Under an incandescent lamp. Warm light ranges from yellow to red-tinted light that is in the range of 2. 1996). as well as lighting ranges from 2.600 to 8. The context relates to the experience and expectations of the individual with normal color vision. Cool light is observed as blue to white hues. Fluorescent lamps have higher color rendering concentrations. blue and yellow appear the same as the true hue (Egan.” High pressure sodium and incandescent lighting fall in the warm color temperature range. 2002). The lighting designer must understand the intent and use of color within the space to accent or maintain the experiential effect in the exhibit (RP-30-96. 5.
color spectrum. 14
. Therefore.950 to 4. 12. The museum lighting designs success includes the correct use of color and how lighting can impact that use of color. Color Temperature Color temperature is another factor for lighting design that explains how light appears warm or cool.000K. A cold and sterile “feeling” is usually associated with 3. 5. red.100K (Karlen.500 to 3. red will be a bright red and yellow will be a bright yellow.
luminaries are aimed at 30 degrees from the vertical to produce minimal shadows. these forms and textures are critical to light. “The two or more luminaires are aimed at 30 degree angle to highlight 3-D form of an artifact or architecture. 690. 690.
Form. 12. 12. With 2-D objects. For permanent objects or free-standing displays. In a museum. zero to twenty degrees in front of the surface to emphasize the texture or design details (RP-30-96. & Artifacts Architects and Interior Designers create structures and spaces to impact buildings. floors. Most viewers are affected by lighting in positive or negative ways. the lamp position is ideally from sixty to seventy degrees (De Chiara. 1996). ceilings. the viewer feels the negative experience by noticing glare. Using the correct angles of light to highlight architectural details is essential for a lighting designer to do in order to enrich the experience. walls. The viewing angles are “measured from a point at the wall and 5. and other features can become surprise elements for lighting in a space. but cannot explain what made the positive or negative experience. as well as artifacts. lamp position and viewing angle contribute to museum 15
. According to IENSA standards. Texture. Therefore. When the lighting and architecture are not compatible.4 ft about the finish floor should be forty-five and seven-five degree from the horizontal to the lamp position in the light fixture” (Figure 1 and 2) (De Chiara. 1996). glare free viewing” (RP-30-96. the brightness or darkness of an exhibit and how easy it is to see artifacts. In addition to materials and finishes. 2007).2007) (Figure 3). luminaires are aimed at a steep angle. The angles of the luminaries and viewing angles are considered for museum lighting design. luminaire tilt.
Layering Light Lighting design achieves composition and understanding visual aesthetics by layering light. Architecture.” This layer is ornamentation in the space and not a light source. These combinations of layers. sconces. pendants. High ambient and task light levels create a more relaxing and cheerful focus.
lighting design. artwork. 2007). Each layer lights certain tasks. All of these layers should be in place to achieve a successful museum lighting system. retail displays and signage are emphasized by focal lighting. In museum lighting design. create a complete lighting system. and decorative are all layers that contribute to the overall aesthetic of a space. 16
. the space will have a more dramatic feeling. task. lanterns. The IESNA standards provide standards for lighting that allow the guests to see the forms and textures. focal. lamps and surface lights are all decorative luminaires (Karlen. All the layers work together to create a whole. cohesive design (Karlen. The main idea behind focal lighting is to draw attention to the object or detail and not the light itself. Decorative layers are considered the “jewelry of architecture. With a low ambient and high task light level. with different light levels. Chandeliers. This type of lighting allows one the ability to move through space and is significantly lower than task light levels. including reading or writing. Ambient layering is the overall lighting of a room. Task layer is lighting used to perform work. 56-57. 2007). Focal layers are primarily used for highlighting features or displays. Track lighting is a common type of focal lighting. Downlights or pendants are common forms of task lighting. 56. the ambient.
This allows flexibility for aiming the light and creating adjustments for the museum. spots and floods. In order to maintain the integrity of the lighting museum design. but reducing the number of different lamps and using multipurpose luminaries assists in maintaining a successful lighting design. the location of luminaires is important for replacement of lamps and re-aiming luminaires. Storage space and reordering costs need to be taken into account. track lighting and downlights are the only light sources. When selecting luminaires. 17
. Mr. 2009). Lindgren explained that lamps will have to be changed and luminaires may be located far from the exhibit. The museum also only has six different lamp types (Lindgren.
Maintenance Lighting design is often very complex. The Bob Bullock Texas Museum of History uses track lighting with three to five different luminaries: downlights. In addition to lamps and luminaires. the maintenance of the luminaires and lamps must be easy to access and change. The distance is due to some of the exhibits being permanent or are difficult to relocate. In the San Antonio Museum of Art and Nasher Sculpture Center.
MUSEUM ANALYSIS Method & Procedure Museum visitations are a critical component to the analysis of this thesis. Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History in Austin. The purpose of the museum analysis is to experience several different types of museums. Texas were visited and analyzed for this thesis. observe the visual effects of lighting in interior spaces. compare lighting aesthetics and visual features. Light readings were recorded in several parts of the exhibits and displays. Texas. Texas. In addition to the quantitative measurements. a qualitative assessment was performed in all visited museums. natural and artificial light design and ambiance within each exhibit. record light levels. assess the differences and similarities that inspire the lighting design of the Cedar Hill Museum of History. The measurements were taken with a light meter model: Ideal-Sperry 61-680. and. finally. Texas. Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas. A quantitative light measurement was conducted in the Nasher Sculpture Center and Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History as well as the display areas. fixture type and numeric value in footcandles. 18
. These qualitative attributes were analyzed and contributed to the lighting design of Cedar Hill Museum of History. The qualitative criteria included: the overall aesthetic and interactive experience of the museum. San Antonio Museum of Art in San Antonio. psychological and physiological facets. and Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth in Fort Worth. The measurements were taken on a sketched elevation or floor plan diagram of the specific area with the type of light source.
The Nasher Center's architecture and lighting elements directly invite the viewer to experience the exhibits and art. The use of daylight is the significant effect. With the use of daylight and natural stone architectural elements. which evokes a Zen. the Nasher Sculpture Center definitely achieves a contrasting Zen feeling to the “rush and bustle” of downtown Dallas. stainless steel rods. The innovative cast aluminum sunscreen device .calming emotion in this space. The garden also radiates calm and peacefulness.
Nasher Sculpture Center Nasher Sculpture Center is a magnificent collection of sculpture and threedimensional arts in an interior and garden gallery. Daylight is difficult to incorporate into a space because of the unpredictability of the weather and climate–winter light.' the building's barrel-vaulted ceiling features delicate glass panes suspended atop narrow steel ribs and supported by thin. summer sunlight and an overcast day all emit different color and light levels. helping visitors connect with the natural space. The goal of the center is to have a sustainable place that will let the Nasher collection live timelessly. The architecture and garden embrace the works. "Building upon the concept of a 'museum without a roof. which consists of a 55. Renzo conducted studies of daylight to assess different light levels and understand how to compensate for differences. The creation of “glass ceiling” with specialized aluminum screen is the architectural feature that influences the experience in the museum. Renzo Piano designed the center.000square foot space with four acres of garden space.specially designed for this project -floats above 19
It is very soothing and relaxing for guests to interact in the space. the artificial light highlights the surfaces to create a visual effect for viewer to be drawn to each sculpture. Depending of the location of artwork. The 20
.4 footcandles is a little variance. 2009). the feeling was not harsh or too bright. In contrast. The east and west walls are white Italian travertine with a matte finish. Due to the presence of daylight and simple décor. Even though the light levels were very high.2 to 3. Even though the artwork in the middle of Gallery 2 has lower light levels. Gallery 2 (figure 4). glass curtain walls are on the north and south side of the museum. artificial light contributes the even light levels throughout the space and displays.
the glass allowing controlled natural light to filter into the galleries. The play of artificial and natural light is evident with the varying light levels in both Galleries. Although the range of 7. These galleries had a range of one hundred fifty-five footcandles to eighty footcandles (see Figure 3). the glass ceiling and curtain walls are providing most of the light for the artwork. The glass ceiling-less permits a very even soft pool of light into in museum. the vertical surfaces have very low light levels to dramatize the displays. the sculptures are the emphasized. In Figure 5. a narrow spot punches the background and floods provide the ambient light. In addition to the glass ceiling-less system. In Display 1. In return. the light levels fluctuate because the daylight is the primary source for highlighting the art. the background comes alive for the viewer to interact with the scene within the display. In Gallery 1 (figure 3). The higher footcandles are directly related to eastern and western glass curtain walls that allow the daylight to pour into the space. the space itself invites visitors to engage with the artwork. eliminating the need for artificial illumination much of the time" (Nasher.
In contrast with Display 1. the Display 2 has layered vertical surfaces with the foreground is emphasized with six footcandles compared to the background of two footcandles. 2009) Figure 5 21
gradual differences in light levels forces eye movement throughout the art. the viewer is focused on the details in the foreground and this does not allow the eye to observe the entire artwork. Visually. Figure 4 (Hunt.
the light levels are very low throughout the museum. which intrigues the patron to interact with art and artist’s intent. In the Nasher Sculpture Center. each label preserves particular elements for the art to relate to viewers in timeless place The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum The Bob Bullock Texas History Museum is a museum that explains the story of Texas. The paper guide also promotes variety of options of how the viewer wants to reflect. 2009) In conclusion. intimate tone. The viewer is given an information guide. The written description leads the viewers to each piece throughout the garden. Décor explains each exhibit while the lighting emphasizes facets 22
. connect and experience art. The garden is uniquely designed for interaction of nature and art. Each artist’s inspiration. historical background and personal quote are elements that excite the patron about the work and enrich the experience. the Nasher Sculpture Center is a dynamic gallery space in the heart of Dallas with a subdued Zen architecture and sculpture garden.
(Hunt. Verner Johnson and Associates designed an interactive experiential museum that tells of the story of Texas narrative form. The museum immediately sets a dramatic. With three floors. E.
the décor and lighting depicts each scene. which directly impacts visitors and indirectly forces the viewers to experience the history. Wandering through the exhibits. comforting feeling as the view was at a typical. natural tones of maroons. while the next exhibit is ten to fifteen footcandles. Layering of light with lumanaire types is the overall striking effect is a fusion of track spots. The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum targets all ages to have a unique experience through Texas history. "Nation becomes a State" is an exhibit that represents a steamboat. The "Building the Lone Star Identity" was a walk-through exhibit with soft dimmed light to feel confined and in a controlled prison environment. down light cans and fiber optics for viewers to be drawn into the exhibit. The layering of light is contrasting with highlights and spots on elements of the steamboat. early-Texas home. The color palette is simple. "Building the Lone Star identity" is the theme for the second floor. 23
. the lighting provides a path for docents to experience each area and psychologically make a connection throughout the first floor. The paint was eggshell with suede or linen backgrounds in the displays to the artifacts to be emphasized.
within the exhibit. Several lighting techniques provide dimension to these exhibits. dark blues and browns. This floor is more interactive and experiential by walking through exhibits. greens. The lighting design creates a scary and mysterious unknown feeling. The varying light levels create movement throughout the first floor. One area is thirty to forty footcandles. The cabin and teepee area had completely different color and light levels to illustrate the cozy. The first floor depicts the land before Texas as a state. Therefore.
The “Centennial Theater” represents 1930’s old theater. The light adaptation is a safety concern. the third floor is "Creating Opportunity. 2009) Finally. which is the only light in the space.” These exhibits explore the different types of commerce and how cities flourished in Texas and the United States. The "Oil Tank Theater" presents how the oil industry changed Texas. Within the décor. several televisions play a movie. Once the eyes adjusted to the light level difference. Figure 6 (Hunt. The contrast of zero to thirty footcandles creates the experience as if a visitor was in a theater watching history unfold. which 24
. The theater had very low levels of light with punches of light on the signage and gas pumps to incorporate theme of history of Texas oil. the uplight columns are washed. Each area has special lighting requirement due to the variety of artifacts and displays. The variety of historical areas varies from a NASA control panel to a ranching scene to oil tanks to an airplane on the third floor. the focus was on the historical information. In Figure 6.
The lighting did not have glare or dramatic shadows. In Figure 7.
completes the experience of understanding Texas Oil. Figure 7 25
. flat surfaces with narrow spots emphasizing photographs and information. The lighting is effective because guests have to focus on the story of oil.” the lighting is consistent and there are higher light levels of forty to fifty footcandles. In "Texas and Nation. information plaques have the highest footcandles with downlights highlighting the information for guests to read. Another area of the third floor is “Land of Opportunity” that displays of history of immigrants and different cultural influences in Texas. The information at eye level is also higher light levels. The lighting design is the critical component to this display because it directs the eye to follow the main concept of the display. Safety is a significant factor in the lighting of the space. this display is made of vertical. In this display. The displays and artifacts were much larger in scale compared to the other areas of the museum. The different light levels and layering of light give the display a hierarchy of importance of the information.
The lighting design and color palette creates movement through the exhibits in the San Antonio Museum of Art. Lighting plays a critical part of the Greek and Roman sculpture room. A dramatic sculpture in front of a deep red wall piques interests of the guests and draws them to go through the Egyptian area to experience more. the area is intriguing and inviting for viewers. In contrast. The Pre-Colombian exhibit is similar to the calming feeling due to glass curtain walls emitting high light levels. The areas are divided by cultures and civilizations of the world. sunlight contributes to the feeling and mood of the area. Compared to the Pre-Colombian area. Some exhibits feature very low levels of light for a dramatic effect inside the displays. The lighting design was tailored to each area. 2009) The San Antonio Museum of Art The San Antonio Museum of Art converted the Lone Star Brewery to house a variety of artworks from all cultures from ancient to present periods. Inside the display cases. Even though the light levels are high with daylight.000 square feet with four levels. the Roman and Greek sculpture 26
. simple barrel vault corridor connects the Egyptian area to the Greek and Roman sculpture room. Clerestory windows provide some daylight. In the entry. a long. The San Antonio Museum of Art is over 55. the artifacts appear to come alive. The overall aesthetic of the museum was to create a unique experience combining industrial brewery with cultural and historical artifacts.
(Hunt. The unique collection contains Pre-Columbian to Egyptian to Asian to European artifacts. Each different civilization is represented by a distinctive color with historical timelines and information.
There are also many interactive vignettes. which enable the guests to relate to Asian cultures. Once the eyes adjust to the low levels. the Chinese and Japanese areas are centralized by the effect of light and the Near Eastern Oceanic room is connected by color and curvilinear elements. The displays are varying heights and proportions to have visual stimulation. Japanese and South Asian areas. lighting design is the single element that directly impacts the experience of the exhibit. variety of displays and contrasting lighting. the display cases and exhibit vignettes come alive with the punches of light in the Chinese. The light levels are very low. The eye focuses on the details of the artifacts more than the room.thirty foot ceiling. The third floor has the curvilinear display elements and combination of daylight and artificial illumination. Several exhibits have curved platforms to emulate how the civilizations were connected to the water. The use of neutral colors in the decor contributes to the impressive glow of the sculptures within the room. proportions and heights within the room. dramatic lighting with narrow spots accenting the sculptures. These tones contribute to the mysterious and intriguing interaction between the displays. In the second floor. The overall effect is successful between the floor layout. The lighting is 27
. Glare is a negative aspect of this room due to the shiny surface on the flooring with high concentrations of spots and down lights beaming down from approximately twenty.
area has soft. The décor and wood finishes are dark tones. The lighting also creates a soothing mood with curiosity to wind through different areas. Near Eastern Oceanic area plays with form. Compared to the second floor. The lighting design is simple with high lights inside on the artifacts.
The museum is lively with artifacts and how the items are displayed. The architecture automatically draws the patron into space and creates a desire to know more about what the museum may contain. values and traditions by displaying and interpreting art works from all cultures and periods" (SAMA. but the entire contemporary art community. Each facet of the museum demonstrates the connection of the public with modern art. The mission of the museum is to “collecting. A long corridor separates the museum for public and private areas. presenting.000 square foot gallery space with modular design that connects a place for the fusion of lives with art. 2009). Tadao Ando created a 53. interpreting International development in post World War II art in media and creating a welcoming environment for public appreciation.
critical for the Near Eastern Oceanic.000 works. but the color and curvilinear form set the tone of the area. The water feature cannot be viewed from the exterior of the building. The architecture and lighting direct the guests to the 28
.” The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth stands strongly behind its mission. The museum’s permanent collection contains 3. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth is a new icon not only for the city of Forth Worth. The San Antonio Museum of Art is "dedicated solely to furthering its mission to promote a deeper understanding of human cultures. a water feature surprises each guest. Once inside the main lobby. The lighting design creates each exhibit's identity and distinguishes the different area with color and light levels.
wood. It also aids finding your way through the museum. steel and glass. From the main museum entrance. The right side contains the offices and support staff for the operations for the museum. The other architectural materials. and café. The architectural elements contribute to the experience of the museum. The second floor has a special exhibition. there is a main corridor that connects each smaller space. main galleries. The signs and guest services are effortlessly visible for visitors. enhance the warmth and complement interaction with the art. The space creates a feeling or sense of peaceful journey and flow. there is gift shop. In the public area. In addition to the water.
public areas. The front desk is strategically placed in the middle of the main corridor for easy access. The main corridor is similar on both floors. The surprise element is revealed that only surrounds exterior of the gallery areas of the museum. The water can only viewed through the large glass curtain wall from the intimate spaces created by the architecture. The interior architecture divides into intimates smaller spaces for unique pieces to have personal reflection with the art. and rich materials enhance the Zen feeling of the space. The first floor is mainly reserved for the permanent collection. The water feature. The museum has two floors. The museum layout is a simplified modular design where each room flows into the next space. the simple white gallery walls give contrast to the architecture and art without dominating the space. Other fascinating design aspects of the museum are the particular large lofty rooms that are double height volumes with 29
. granite. The smaller spaces are darker to create a more intimate experience. natural light. concrete. The left side of the museum is the public area.
Layering natural and artificial light emphasizes the volume of the space and dramatizes the artwork. The architectural design and diverse art collection create an environment for art appreciation to be in everyday life. These spaces can be viewed from both the first and second floors. The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth is exclusive. The spaces also give 3D art various perspectives to observe the art. unique experience to interact with a variety of media. Overall.
daylight pouring into the space. The double height volumes promote the dialog of people and art. customer service. The architectural design enhances the interaction with each art piece. the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth brings a new experience to the concept of art museums and interaction with people. The creative division of gallery spaces leads the patrons to have personal reflection with particular favorite masterpieces. gallery space and patron amenities contribute distinctive successful approach to display art in a concrete modular building. The architecture. 30
Entry The entry of the museum is the “wow” space that invites guests to experience the museum.
LIGHTING DESIGN: CEDAR HILL MUSEUM OF HISTORY Concept The lighting design concept of the Cedar Hill Museum of History is like a geode. lowered ceiling with compact fluorescent downlights emits an even pool of light in figure 9. Tornado in Penn House. The designed space explains where a community meets heritage and nature. Each layer of light symbolizes a layer in the geode. The combination of metal halide. The unique. fiber optics. A geode is a type of rock with a rough exterior that gives no indication of the beauty held within its core. Farming and Ranching. Oral History. uplight. Once a guest enters the museum. Commerce. The custom glass geode inspired topography sculpture is highlighted with metal halide PAR 20 floods and punched 31
. Each rock is unique in composition and cannot be truly discovered until cracked open. floods. downlight. spots. direct. the geodeinspired lighting design is revealed. Television Towers. Railroad Depot. compact fluorescents.000-square-foot museum is a U-shaped building with a centralized courtyard within the museum. This 3. The indirect. and Temporary exhibit (figure 4). track systems and pendants are all luminaries that contribute to the layering effect of light in the museum. Gobo projectors. and linear fluorescents produce the optimal quality of light and illuminate the creative designed exhibits: Natural History.
Behind the reception desk. On the same track system. The mural is washed by metal halide PAR 20 Floods on a track system (see figure 10). metal halide PAR 20 spots direct the guests to particular points of interest in this exhibit.
with metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots lights. Natural History The Natural History exhibit is a photographic mural of Cedar Hill landscapes. The niches are illuminated by fiber optics with five to seven footcandles to accentuate the detail of the artifacts of the natural history. niches display artifacts and historical information of the Cedar Hill natural history. the Cedar Hill Museum of History’s logo is back light with downlights to welcome the guests to enter the museum. 32
. Within the mural.
. This exhibit depicts the feeling of being in a tornado in the Penn family’s home.
Tornado in Penn House The Penn family is a prominent family in Cedar Hill. The GOBO projector creates the lighting and series of color changes through a tornado. Cedar Hill was hit by two tornados at the same time that destroyed a large part of the architectural history of the town. There are flat LCD panels in each window illustrating the effects of a tornado as a person would see from a window. The interior has compact fluorescent downlights to allow visitors to enter the house easily. The exterior of the house is highlighted with metal halide PAR 20 floods (see figure 11). In 1856.
guests are surprised with a lowered railroad track ceiling and a Railroad depot in the center of exhibit. Payne’s general store. Punches of metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots are used on the information plaques as well.
Railroad Depot and Commerce After experiencing the 1956 tornado. Straus Hotel and Mr. The north wall is a glass curtain to emit natural light into the space. The indirect portion of light illuminates a gravel ceiling with direct light emitting on the entire area. The use of daylight adds a calming component to the experience. Commerce aligns the walls with 2-D cutouts with murals of the Cedar Hill Fire Station. The metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots highlight the 2-D cutouts with layering metal halide PAR 20 floods on the murals in figure 12. 34
. The railroad ties are direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendants that are used as a feature through this exhibit to help visitors find their way. The highest light levels measure.
A track system of metal halide PAR 20 floods washes the murals (see figure 13). A GOBO projector is used in the ceiling to create the lighting effects. The display cases have linear fluorescents with special angular lens to distribute the light in the case for viewing and no glare.
Farming and Ranching The Farming and Ranching exhibit focuses on the “full day in Cedar Hill. Compact fluorescent downlights provide light for evening in the space. The ceiling has several layers to represent clouds that light effect change to emulate weather and time of day changes. 35
.” The east and south wall have photographic murals of a ranching and farming scene. The west wall is a glass curtain that allows daylight to pour into the space.
Television Towers History Cedar Hill is the highest point from the Red River to Houston. This west wall illustrates a timeline with mural photographs to the history of the towers. 36
. television towers have become an icon of the landscape of Cedar Hill. Texas. Similar to the farming and ranching exhibit. Over time. the metal halide PAR 20 floods emphasize the information on the wall in figure 13.
In general. PAR 20 narrow spots. The ceilings are 12 feet with cove lighting. In figure 14. and downlights are luminaries for the track system. The lighting is even pool of indirect light for guests to research family history. Temporary Exhibit Area The temporary exhibit area is a flexible space for different traveling exhibits. the walls are washed. The tracking system is three feet off the walls with different light sources. learn more about Cedar Hill History. The space is functional with tables and a computer with which to conduct research. The light levels can be adjusted for different guests and uses of the space. 37
. or listen to testimonials of oral history. Metal halide PAR 20 floods.
Oral History The Oral History is a nook space within the natural history area (see figure 10).
texture. the lighting design has several considerations that affect the lighting and spatial concepts. color temperature. form.500 Kelvin. The lighting maintenance is convenient because a limited number of lamp types are selected for the museum and location of luminaries are away from the exhibits. Each of exhibit area uses layers of light to attract the guests to read and learn from each historical time period. layered light. The specified lamps have high color render index and 3. Color rendered index. and maintenance are all factors that contribute to the whole. 38
. viewing angles. These considerations allow the lighting design to fuse lighting elements with an architectural designed space to create an effective and functional design for humans to enjoy the experiential interaction.
Lighting Design Considerations In the Cedar Hill Museum of History.
FIGURES Figure 1 (DiChara. 690.
Figure 2 40
690. 2007) Figure 3 41
Figure 4 (Hunt. 2009) 43
Figure 8 (Hunt. 2009) 44
Figure 9 (Hunt.
Figure 10 (Hunt.
Figure 11 (Hunt.
Figure 12 (Hunt.
Figure 13 (Hunt.
Figure 14 (Hunt.
discharge lamp which passes a high pressure electron arc stream through a gas vapor. Fluorescent lamp. Lux. e.Color Rendering Index is degree of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the light source as compared with a color of those same objects undergo when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature (RP-30-96. 390. small point sources. (Egan.Light-Emitting Diodes – low-power. 392.Correlated Color Temperature is light source will determine whether the display takes on a "cool" or "warm" appearance.
DEFINITIONS CRI. Higher Kelvin is a more cool appearance.unit of luminous intensity equal to 1 candlepower. 393. HID. The light can be objectively measured when reflected from or transmitted through an object. The unit of measure is expressed in footcandles? I don’t know what you meant by produces footcandles. they are used in traffic signals. Foot Candle (fc) – quantity of light on 1 foot squared of surface area 1 foot away from light source of 1 cd (Egan.390. metal halide. (Egan. 2002). Incandescent lamp.harsh. or red. 2002). (Egan. 394. 2002). 51
. commercial advertising signage and exit signs (Egan. 1996). 2002). 391. expressed in Kelvin. CCT.009fc).lamp in which light is produced by heating filament to incandescence (i. 2002). 392. 1996). Luminance. 84. 2002). Examples are mercury. Fluorescent phosphor coating on inside of bulb transforms ultra-violet energy into visible light (Egan. LED. Glare.is the luminous intensity of a surface or object. Light from the wrong place at greater brightness than that to which eyes are adapted.High Intensity Discharge lamp. Typically amber.. point of emitting light) by means of an electric current (Egan. and high-pressure sodium lamps (Egan. 84. Candelas (cd). 394.discharge lam which emits electron arc stream from cathodes at ends. orange . lower Kelvin temperature corresponds to a warmer appearance of the light source (RP-30-96. 2002). uncomfortably bright light source or reflection that interferes with visual perception. 2002).metric unit of quantity of light on 1 m squared of surface area 1 m away from light source of 1 cd( 1lx equal to 0.
Luminaire – complete lighting unit consisting of lamp or lamps together with parts to position and protect lamp. 55. multiply by 0. However. To convert lux to foot candles.a device for changing. Cut off-has and is being used to describe luminaries that have no direct up light (no light emitted above horizontal). 2002).quantity of light (fc or lx) which reaches a surface. Fill light. and connect lamp to a power supply. 1996).supplementary illumination to reduce shadow or contrast range. 84. 83).
Illuminance ( E). Also referred to as a fixture (RP-30-96. 83. Spill Light falls outside of the area intended to be lighted (RP-30-96. in addition to that limitation. 1996). 52
.1996). the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) definition also requires luminaries to comply with the glare requirement limiting intensity of light from the luminaire in the region between 80° and 90°. 84. provided on the work-plane or on an object. the magnitude or spectral composition of the flux incident upon it (RP-30-96. Diffused lighting. 1996). (RP-3096. that is not predominantly incident from any particular direction (RP-30-96. direct light . by transmission or reflection.lighting.09 (Egan. 392. Filter.
Florentine. K. University of Texas.org. (2004). From Building and Garden: Building detail www. March 4. M. Falzano. University of Texas. www. (2009). 2009). K. M. Museums and the Green World. Rebecca. M. 47-49 Hunt. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (Site Visit April 3. Where lights Meets Landscape. 2009 Drawings. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. (Eds) (2007). al.02. New York: IESNA.02.com De Chiara. (1989). 2009. LD+A Museum on Display. (1996) Museum and Art Gallery Lighting: A Recommendation Practice RP-30-96. Elizabeth. & Benya. Volume 39/No.D. F. Austin. & Crosbie.nashersculpturecenter. et. (Masters dissertation. J. V. Egan. Roslyn. Lighting Design Basics. Liapi. 2009. Austin. Liapi. LD+A Museum on Display. February). LD+A Museum on Display. Art Museums. 2009. 2009. (Personal Interview. Architectural Lighting. Karlen. Natural light in Museums. University of Texas. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons. (Doctors of Philosophy dissertation. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.
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. 36-41. Retrieved January 28. an experience in Light: the Role of light in the Experience of the Art Museum. 1989). p. J. (2002).02.storyof texas. Diorama Drama. & OIgyay. Frank. Time-Savor Standards for Building Types. W. Volume 39/No. 2009). (1994). (February). Retrieved March 1. p. Mark. University of Texas. Volume 39/No.
Daylight from All Directions.org Tarricone. 33-35. 2009. February). Illuminating Alternatives: Research In Museum Lighting www. (Site Visit February 15. Lighting for Museums and Art Galleries. (2009). 2009). (Site Visit March 3. (2009) Retrieved February 19. LD+A Museum on Display. CIBSE Lighting Guide LG8: London.getty. (2009. 2009. J. San Antonio Museum of Art.
Nasher Sculpture Center. 36-41.02. p. San Antonio Museum of Art. 2009). Paul. Curb Side. Volume 39/No. Retrieved February 15.org The Getty. Unknown. Volume 39/No. From Museum Information: History of SAMA www. (Ed) (1994). p. 54
.02. Wilson.samuseum. LD+A Museum on Display. February). (2009.