Museum

STUDY OF O F M USE USEUM LIG LIG HTING A ND DESIG DESIGN N Approved:  _______________  _______________________ _____________  _____  Dr. Dr. Hea Hea ther ther C . Ga G a llowa ow a y Dire Direc tor tor, University University Honor Hono rs Progr Prog ra m Approved:  _______________  ______________________ _____________  ______  Dr. Dr. Hegde Hegd e Depa Dep a rtment of Fa Fa mily mily C onsumer onsumer Sc ience ienc e Supe up ervising vising Profes Profe sso r STUDY O F MUS MUSE EUM LIGHT IG HTING A ND DESIG DESIGN N HON HO NO RS THESIS HESIS Pres Prese e nte nte d to the Hono Ho norrs C o mmit mmittee o f   Tex  Texa a s Sta te Uni Univer vers sity-S -Sa a n M a rc o s In Partial Fulfillment of  the Requi Req uirre ments Fo r G ra d uati ua tio o n in the the Unive Univerrsity ity Ho Ho nor no rs Pro Pro g ra m By Elizabeth Gay Hunt Sa n Ma M a rc o s, Te xa s May 2009 STUDY O F MUS MUSE EUM LIGHT IG HTING A ND DESIG DESIGN N HON HO NO RS THESIS HESIS Pres Prese e nte nte d to the Hono Ho norrs C o mmit mmittee o f   Tex  Texa a s Sta te Uni Univer vers sity-S -Sa a n M a rc o s In Partial Fulfillment of  the Requi Req uirre ments Fo r G ra d uati ua tio o n in the the Unive Univerrsity ity Ho Ho nor no rs Pro Pro g ra m By Elizabeth Gay Hunt Sa n Ma M a rc o s, Te xa s May 2009 STUDY O F M USEU USEUM M LIG LIG HTIN HTING G A ND DESI DESIG N A BSTRAC RAC T A museum museum is a plac e to d isc over, explor explore e a nd lea rn abo a bo ut the the p a st, pres present ent and a nd future future of o f cr c re a tivit tivity, y, as well we ll a s history. history. Lighting plays p lays a signific ignific a nt ro ro le in d eve loping lop ing inter intera a c tion tion betwee b etwee n huma huma ns a nd museum museum ar a rtifac tifac ts in one de fined fined spa c e. " M useums useums a re p lac es where where lighting lighting d esign esign is c ritica itica l to to the overall o verall e xp e rienc e ”(Lo ”(Lo we,43 we ,43,, 2009 2009)). Lighting ighting is essential essential for human interac interac tion tion in a spa c e.  Tec  Tec hnic hnic a l ill illumination umination res resea ea rc h la la ys a founda found a tion tion to cond c onduc uctt a nalysi nalysis in a variety variety of  museums museums.. This resear esea rc h c omp one nt is is signifi ignific c a nt to unders und erstand tand the c omp lexit lexity y and a nd var va rious fac fa c ets o f over ove ra ll muse muse um lighting lighting de d e sign. This study eva e valuate luates s b o th the the q uanti ua ntitative tative a nd qua litative litative a sp ec ts of lighting lighting d esign esign in four four museums museums.. Psychological, physiological and experiential components are observed in these muse muse ums’ ums’ e nviro nviro nments nme nts to a naly na lyz ze lig lig hting desi d esign gn wit w ithin hin its its e xhibits. hibits. M y observations and knowledge gained by studying these museums help influence a nd enhanc enha nce e the des d esiign o f the C ed a r Hi Hill M useum useum o f His History. tory. 3 DEDI DEDIC C A TIO N  Thi  This s Honor Thesi hesis is de dica dic a ted in memory of my mother, mother, Ca rolyn olyn T. Hunt Hunt.. She ins insti tillled in me the idea ide a that we live live a short time time on o n Ea Ea rth. She often o ften sa sa id, “We ar a re giv g iven en talents that we must must give ba c k to the c ommunity ommunity and help o thers thers.” The C ed a r Hill Hill M useum useum o f His History lighting lighting d esign esign is a reflec tion tion of how she c o ntributed ntributed to the c ommunity ommunity of C ed a r Hil Hill and helped mold the c ommunity ommunity into what wha t is is toda y. M y mother mothe r insp insp ire ire d me to e xp lore my c rea tivit tivity y as a s c hild hild . With this this insp insp ira ira tion, I have fol fo llowed ow ed my pa ssion of des d esiigning gning a nd tea c hing. hing. I would not be the out o utgo go ing person that I am without her constant love, patience and strength. In addition to my mother, Harry Duff Hunt III and Kristofer Duff Hunt are two personal heroes who have given me endless amounts of love, support and enc oura oura gement ge ment to to b e the b est est “Bus “Busybeth” ybeth” that that I ca n be. be . And, finally, I am very grateful for Dr. Asha Hegde Neizgoda. She came into my lif life e a t a c ritica itica l time time when whe n I wa s strugg trugg ling ling with how I fit fit into into the “d esign esign wor wo rld.” She is a life-c life-c hanging ha nging mentor me ntor who ha s given me o pp ortunit ortunities ies for self self disc disc over ove ry and a nd pe rsona l growth. growth. Dr. Dr. Neizgo Neizgoda da has cha llenged eng ed me to op en my eyes to to my pas pa ssion– Ligh Lighti ting ng Des De sign. 4  TA  TA BLE O F C O NTE NTENTS NTS A BSTRAC RAC T....................... ................................... ...................... ..................... ...................... ....................... ...................... ...............4 .....4 INTR INTRO DUCT DUC TION................... IO N................................... ............................ ........................ ......................... ......................... .............7 .7 LITERA LITERAT TURE REVIEW...................................................................................................7 MUSEUM A NALYS NA LYSIS IS............ ........................ ......................... ......................... ........................ ............................... .................................1 ..............19 9 LIGHT LIG HTING DESIG DESIGN.................. N............................... ......................... ........................ ......................... ......................... .............................3 .................32 2 FIG FIG URES URES.......... ..................... ....................... ........................ ....................... ....................... ....................... ...................... .................40 ......40 DEFINIT DEFINITIO IONS.................. NS.............................. ........................ ....................... ....................... ....................... ....................... ..............51 ..51 REFE REFERE RENC NC ES........... ES..................... ..................... ..................... ...................... ........................ ....................... ....................... ............53 53 5 Introduction  The purpo se of my thesis is to study qualitative and q uantitative aspects of museum lighting d esign in existing installations. The museum design will guide the visitors to disc over, explore a nd lea rn ab out history in a c rea tive environment. Lighting plays a signific ant role in developing interac tion between humans and museum a rtifac ts in one defined spa ce." The goa l of a museum is to c rea te an interac tive experienc e for the gue sts, as well as preserve the c ond ition of artifac ts. Lighting is a critical component in a museum environment because the space enables visitors to see objects, experience new sights and react to the surrounding environment. Typic ally, environments have two types of light–na tural and a rtificial. For a museum, the role of light is an essential pa rt of c rea ting a n atmosphe re prime for discovery, while also preserving a rtifacts. This c an be a very diffic ult ba lancing a c t between mee ting p reservation needs and forming interactive experienc es that ac hieve the goa l of the museum–a plac e to d iscover, explore and lea rn. Illumination Engineering Soc iety of No rth America (IESNA) provides pa rameters and stand ards for lighting de sign in a museum to e nsure safety, preserve artifacts, and create an interactive experience for guests of all age s. A b rief review of literature will help understand this thesis. The literature enc omp asses qualitative as well as qua ntitative aspe cts of lighting in a museum. Daylight  Museum designs incorporate daylight because humans relate to nature. "Natural Light c an be used to great effec t to dramatize a nd e nliven the de sign of  6 any building (De C hiara, 690, 2007). Light defines a space within a building’s design. Daylight always fluctuates and often is fused in interac tive spa c es. C loud cover, season, the time of day and a building’s position are factors directly impa c ting lighting design a nd how humans experienc e the spa ce. The a mount of  daylight penetrating the museum interior must be given serious consideration to understand how natural light impacts the space. Factors such as reflection, glare, acc limation and delinea tion in the spa ce should be analyzed c losely. IESNA ha s resea rc hed and made fa ctors that “affec t the final luminanc e p roduce d by arc hitec tural surfaces and da ylight” (RP-30-96, 30, 1996). Sc ale a nd prop ortion are important co nsiderations. The “c eiling height and roo m depth” direc tly c orrelate to the a mount of daylight absorbed and e xplore the intent of light in the spa ce (RP30-96, 30, 1996). Va rious heights and roo m de pths also can affec t human percep tion of spa ce. The amount of da ylight and how natural light is filtered into a spa c e will create several different effec ts in a spec ific spa ce. For example, if a room is small with high ceilings and a punch of daylight, it will be perceived as being larger. If a room is large with low c eilings and little daylight, the spa ce c an feel confined and stagnant. The plac ement of windo ws or glazings and the available amo unt of natural light gives the de sign variety. “Reflec ting c harac teristics of the interior surfaces” is another fac tor with IESNA standards. Interior materials and finishes should be selec ted to c ontribute to the overall aesthetic o f the spac e. When daylight is introd uced in a space, interior finishes c an c rea te more reflec tive surfac es and c ause a negative effec t. Ma terials and finishes that a re too shiny or reflec tive c rea te glare. If there is glare o r too much reflec tive light, guests may expe rience discomfort while interac ting in the museum, a nd their 7 experienc e will be g rea tly altered. Lighting design nee ds to enc omp ass the dynamics of d aylight and use light prope rly to a ssist in c rea ting a n interac tive a nd c omfortable museum experienc e. While da ylight add s to the o verall ambiance of the spac e, this light has neg ative impa ct on a rtifac ts. Thus, da ylight and preservation of a rtifac ts usually c onflic t and must some times c omp romise for a museum d esign’s sake. Natural light has a high light output and c onta ins very high c onc entrations of Ultraviolet rays.  These UV rays are known to da mag e textiles and artifac ts. In addition, light exposure will affec t artifacts. IESNA stand ards range from five to 30 foo t-ca ndles dep end ing on the type of artifact (RP-30-96, 14, 1996). In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History in Austin, Texas, a rtifacts are all borrowed and not owned by the museum, says Mr. Lindgren, a lighting and exhibit tec hnician. Mr. Lindgren a lso says that the museum is more sensitive to light levels on documents and artifacts and the museum has to be very careful with preservation. Mr. Lindgren tries to p rotec t the museums’ c ontents and kee ps light levels closer to four to five fc because the museum does not own them (Lindgren, 2009). When a rtifacts are ma de of metal or leather, light levels c an be highe r.  Therefore, artifac ts and the museum dictate how da ylight ca n be used in the space. A rtific ia l Illum ina tion  Several type s of artificial light sourc es are used in interior applic ations to provide light for visibility, tasks, a c cent and dec oration. Typical interior a rtificial light sourc es include incandesc ent, fluorescent, HID, fiber optics, cold c athode and 8 LEDs. Incandescent lamps are generally used for ambient and accent lighting with trac k luminaires. In museums, incande sc ent, fibe r op tic and HID are the most common light sources. Ac cording to IESNA stand ards for museums, comp ac t fluoresc ents, tungsten Halog en, HID and PARs are the most c ommon for ge neral lighting. With indirec t lighting, fluorescent lamp s are used to diffuse illumination q uality. Acc ent lighting include PAR-type inca ndesc ent and tungsten haloge n. Inca ndescent, compa ct fluorescent, tungsten haloge n, metal halide and fiber optic are rec ommended to use in case, c abinet a nd under-shelf lighting. Floo d lighting typically co nsists of  rec essed do wn lights or track-mounted fixtures with incande sc ent, tungsten halogen and HID light sourc es (RP-30-96, 44, 1996). The loc ation and p urpose of the light, along with the type of light source, b ec ome c rucial in providing the c orrec t amount of light and the lamp properties for interior app lications in the museum. Lig ht Le ve ls  Light levels are based on the visibility as well as the a c cessibility in the museum space. The quantitative measurements of light in museums are determined by the exhibit type , co llec tion, storage a nd handling. In the IESNA’s required light levels, collection storage is five footcandles and collection handling is twenty to fifty foo tcandles. The type of a rtifac ts in the museum is a significa nt detail in orde r to estab lish the a mount of light level and light expo sure to the o bjec ts. The overall ob jec tive in a museum’s lighting design is to light individua l objec ts with c onside ration to the sensitivity of the ob jec t and how guests will view it. If the 9 exhibit is very sensitive, the footcandle req uirement ranges from five to ten. Sensitive o bjec ts have fifteen to twenty foo tcandles. Less sensitive o bjec ts can have thirty to fifty footcandles (De C hiara, 690, 2007). Another fac tor in lighting a museum is the a cc essible light levels throug hout the exhibits range s from five to thirty foo tcandles. G uests’ safety and preservation of artifacts are c ritical in an exhibit’s design. (RP-30-96, 10, 1996). Ambient lighting usually consists of five to 30 footcandles. Within the interior spac e, ramp s and stairs, visitor pa thways and text pa nels all are required to be ten to thirty foo tcandles. Direct signa ge is twenty to thirty foo tcandles (RP-30-96, 11, 1996).  The age o f viewe rs and light levels direc tly impa ct the experienc e of the museum. An individual less than forty yea rs old need s five to twe nty fc to ade qua tely see de tails within an interior space. While older adults need a minimum of ten fc . (RP-30-96, 12, 1996). Style s o f Lum ina ire s  Luminaires are c harac terized b y the way light is distributed. “Light fixtures are the luminaires that are permanently attac hed to the building” (Karlen, 13, 2004). There a re several other luminaire types including: direct, indirect, diffuse, direc t/indirec t, asymmetric up rights, do wnlights and a djustab le. Direc t luminaires emit light downward. These inc lude most type s of recessed lighting with downlights and troffers. Indirec t luminaires emit light upwa rd that bounc es from the c eiling into a spa ce. Many styles inc lude suspe nde d luminaires, sconces and some portable lamps. Diffuse luminaires emit light in all direc tions uniformly. These include most ba re lamp s, globe s and c hand eliers. 10 Direct/indirect luminaires emit light upward and downward, but not to the side. These include ma ny types of suspended luminaires as well as table lamps. Direc t/ indirec t also c an be semi-direc t or semi-indirec t acc ording to the propo rtions of up and do wn light. Asymmetric luminaires are usually designe d for spec ial applica tions. Asymmetric uplights are indirec t luminaires with stronger distribution in one direc tion, such as awa y from a wa ll. Wall wa shers are form of direc t luminaire with stronger distribution to one side so as to illuminate a wall. Adjustab le luminaires are ge nerally direc t luminaires that can be adjusted to throw light in directions other than down. These include trac k lights, floodlights and a cc ent lights. (Karlen, 13, 2004). V isu a l A d a p t a t io n a n d A c c o m m o d a t io n    The human eye is highly ada ptive. The eye has the ability to perc eive things and operate under very bright lighting conditions, as well as adapt to moonlight and mid-day sunlight. This unique ability is called adaption. Visual adaption is the amount of time it takes a human eye to acc limatize to ne w surround ings. The eye also ha s the a bility to c hange shap e to foc us on objec ts and make mea ning out of  the information rec eived. This proc ess is called ac commod ation. C hanges from high to low luminanc e c an affec t guests in the museum de pending on age and visual difficulties. In orde r for a huma n to see an ob jec t and its de tails, a lighting designe r needs to a nalyze how the guests will interact with the exhibits to p rop erly take visual adapta tion into c onsideration. "There are limits to the range o f  luminanc e that the eye c an ad apt to at any one time, and area s where b rightness is too high will become g lare, might it diffic ult to see the exhibit" (Wilson, 32). This proc ess is not instanta neo us. "Adaptation is eight minutes adeq uate for the eye to ada pt a nd one hours in extreme cond itions betwe en high to low light levels" (RP-3096, 12 & 59, 1996). IESNA also suggests another c riterion of ob servation tha t says the 11 "display of the objec ts should b e the brightest elements in view" (RP-30-96 59, 1996).  The smaller or more detailed an objec t is, the more light is required . Therefore, the human eye has the ability to be very receptive to light, but the amount of  luminance and difference from one level to another is a significant factor in lighting of a museum. Glare  In add ition to visual ada ptation, eyes ca n pe rceive c onditions that are too bright and cause discomfort. "G lare is the bright light that can interfere with visual percep tion (Ega n, 27, 2002). There are two type s of glare. Direc t glare is the bright light source directly impa cting the field of vision. This includes a fixture a imed in direc t line o f sight. Reflec tive glare is the reflec tion o f an image from a light source on spe cific shiny surfaces. An example of this would include a d own light aimed on the granite floor that makes a b right spot (Ega n, 27, 2002). In museums, glare c an c ause severe prob lems and interfere with the interac tive experienc e. In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History to alleviate glare problems, Mr. Lingren explained to the issue with glare and the challenge to highlight display cases without glare or shado wing. The light sources must be farther away from the c ase with a wide floo d fixture to widely dispe rse the light without direc t aim on the g lass c ase (Lingren, 2009). 12 LIGHTING DESIGN C ONSIDERATIONS  To have a succ essful lighting design, lighting de signers have p articular c onsiderations that affec t lighting on spa ce, ob jects, and p urpo se. C olor rendered, color temperature, texture, form, viewing angles, layered light and maintenance are a ll fac tors that c ontribute to the whole. An understanding o f these fa ctors allows the lighting de signer to fuse lighting elements with an architec tural designed spa c e to c rea te a n effec tive a nd func tiona l design for humans to interests and experienc e the spa c e. C o lo r Re n d e rin g In d e x   C olor Rend ering Index (C RI) describe s the true hue that app ea rs from a light sourc e. The scale is from zero to 100. Natural light is 100, whic h has the best color rend ering properties. C RI is critica l dep end ing on the intent of the space. Retail, work spa c es and museums need a high C RI for the human e ye to rea c t favorably.  The Lighting Basic s Design suggests 80-100 C RI for work, retail and museum spa ces. In the c ontext of interior museums, the displays and exhibits should ha ve a high C RI and g eneral lighting c an have a lower C RI (Karlen, 4-5, 2004). In addition to C RI, c olor co nsistenc y should be evaluated in interior spaces. In a museum, c olor co nsistenc y is very important for exhibits and displays to a ppe ar true to c olor. The materials and finishes will app ea r different under different types of  artificial light sourc es. Within museums, the artifacts and d isplays are the primary foc us. The bac kground c olor or co lor surrounding the ob jec ts can alter the color viewed on the artifac ts (RP-30-96, 12, 1996). “C olor rend ition dep end s on the lamp 13 c olor spec trum, reflec tive p rop erties of the surface and c ontext” ( Ega n, 80, 2002).  The c ontext relates to the experienc e and expec tations of the individua l with normal co lor vision. Museums’ goa ls are to preserve artifac ts and educate viewers abo ut the historic al pa st. The lighting designe r must understand the intent and use of c olor within the spa ce to a ccent or maintain the experiential effec t in the exhibit (RP-30-96, 12, 1996). Incandesc ent lamps render red a nd yellow hues more truly than blue. Under an incandescent lamp, blue will appea r dull blue, red will be a bright red and yellow will be a b right yellow. Fluorescent lamps have highe r color rendering c onc entrations. Therefore, red, blue and yellow appea r the same a s the true hue (Ega n, 80, 2002). Several lamp type s can comp ensate for c olor shifting and distortion. The museum lighting de signs suc cess includes the c orrect use of  c olor and how lighting c an impa ct that use of color. C o lo r Te m p e ra t u re   C olor temperature is another factor for lighting design tha t explains how light app ea rs warm or c oo l. Kelvin is the app rop riate unit for color temp erature with a scale from zero to 8,000K. Warm light ranges from yellow to red -tinted light that is in the range of 2,500 to 3,500K. This color temp erature is perceived a s being “wa rm and c ozy.” High pressure sod ium and incande sc ent lighting fall in the wa rm color temp erature range, as well as lighting ranges from 2,950 to 4,100K (Karlen, 5, 2004). C oo l light is ob served as blue to white hues. A c old and sterile “feeling” is usually associated with 3,600 to 8,000K. The higher c olor temp erature is sugg ested in spe cial-ap plica tions lighting where color disc rimination is significa nt (Karlen, 5, 2004). 14 Fo rm , Te xture , & A rtifa c ts  Architects and Interior Designers create structures and spaces to impact buildings. Most viewers are a ffec ted by lighting in positive o r negative wa ys, but c annot explain what mad e the po sitive or negative experienc e. Using the c orrec t angles of light to highlight arc hitec tural details is essential for a lighting designer to do in order to enrich the e xperienc e. In addition to materials and finishes, c eilings, wa lls, floors, and other fea tures can bec ome surprise elements for lighting in a spa c e. When the lighting a nd a rc hitec ture a re no t compatible, the viewer feels the neg ative expe rienc e b y notic ing g lare, the brightness or da rkness of a n exhibit and how easy it is to see artifacts. In a museum, these forms and textures are critic al to light, as well as artifac ts.  The angles of the luminaries and viewing angles are c onside red for museum lighting design. Ac cording to IENSA stand ards, luminaires are a imed at a steep a ngle, zero to twenty de grees in front of the surfac e to emp hasize the texture o r design d eta ils (RP-30-96, 12, 1996). “The two or more luminaires are a imed a t 30 degree angle to highlight 3-D form of a n artifact or architec ture. With 2-D objec ts, luminaries are aimed at 30 degrees from the vertical to produce minimal shadows, glare free viewing” (RP-30-96, 12, 1996). The viewing angles are “measured from a point at the wa ll and 5.4 ft ab out the finish floo r should b e fo rty-five a nd seven-five d egree from the horizontal to the lamp position in the light fixture” (Figure 1 and 2) (De C hiara, 690, 2007). For permanent ob jec ts or free -stand ing d isplays, the lamp position is ideally from sixty to seve nty degrees (De C hiara, 690,2007) (Figure 3).  Therefore, luminaire tilt, lamp po sition and viewing angle co ntribute to museum 15 lighting design. The IESNA stand ards provide standards for lighting that allow the guests to see the forms and textures. La ye ring Lig ht  Lighting design achieves composition and understanding visual aesthetics by layering light. Eac h layer lights certain tasks. All the layers work tog ethe r to create a whole, cohesive de sign (Karlen, 56, 2007). In museum lighting design, the ambient, task, foc al, and dec orative a re all layers that c ontribute to the o verall aesthetic o f a spa ce. Ambient layering is the overall lighting of a room. This type of  lighting allows one the a bility to move through spa c e a nd is significa ntly lower than task light levels. Task layer is lighting used to perform work, including rea ding or writing. Downlights or penda nts are c ommo n forms of task lighting. With a low ambient and high task light level, the spa c e will have a more dramatic feeling. High a mbient and task light levels c rea te a more relaxing a nd c heerful foc us. Foc al layers are primarily used for highlighting fea tures or displays. Architec ture, artwork, reta il displays and signage are emp hasized by foc al lighting. The main idea b ehind focal lighting is to draw attention to the object or detail and not the light itself.  Trac k lighting is a c ommon type o f foc al lighting. Dec orative layers are c onsidered the “jewelry of arc hitec ture.” This layer is ornamentation in the spa ce a nd no t a light source. C hande liers, sconc es, lanterns, penda nts, lamps and surface lights are all decorative luminaires (Karlen, 56-57, 2007). These c ombinations of layers, with different light levels, create a c omplete lighting system. All of these layers should be in place to achieve a succ essful museum lighting system. 16 Maintenance  Lighting d esign is often very comp lex, but red ucing the number of d ifferent lamp s and using multipurpose luminaries assists in maintaining a suc cessful lighting design. When selec ting luminaires, Storage spac e and reo rdering c osts need to be taken into ac count. The Bob Bullock Texas Museum of History uses trac k lighting with three to five different luminaries: downlights, spots and floods. This allows flexibility for aiming the light and c reating adjustments for the museum. The museum also only has six different lamp types (Lindgren, 2009). In the San Antonio Museum of Art and Nasher Sculpture C enter, track lighting a nd d ownlights are the only light sources. In ad dition to lamps and luminaires, the location of luminaires is important for rep lac ement of lamps and re-aiming luminaires. Mr. Lindgren explained that lamps will have to b e c hanged and luminaires may be loc ated fa r from the e xhibit. The d istanc e is due to some o f the exhibits be ing p ermanent or are d ifficult to reloc ate. In order to maintain the integrity of the lighting museum design, the maintenanc e of the luminaires and lamps must be ea sy to acc ess and change. 17 M USEUM A N A LYSIS  Method & Proc edure Museum visitations are a critic al component to the a nalysis of this thesis. The purpose of the museum analysis is to experience several different type s of  museums, ob serve the visual effec ts of lighting in interior spaces, compare lighting aesthetics and visual fea tures, rec ord light levels, and, finally, assess the d ifferenc es and similarities that inspire the lighting d esign of the C edar Hill Museum of History. Na sher Sc ulpture C enter in Dallas, Texas; Bob Bulloc k Texas State Museum of History in Austin, Texas; San Antonio Museum of Art in San Antonio, Texas; and Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth in Fort Worth, Texas were visited and analyzed for this thesis. A qua ntitative light mea surement wa s conducted in the Na sher Sc ulpture C enter and Bob Bullock Texas State M useum of History as well as the display areas. The measurements were taken with a light meter model: Ideal-Sperry 61-680. Light rea dings were rec orded in several pa rts of the exhibits and displays. The mea surements were taken on a sketc hed elevation or floor plan diag ram of the specific area with the type of light source, fixture type and numeric value in foo tcandles. In addition to the qua ntitative mea surements, a qualitative assessment was performed in all visited museums. The qualitative c riteria included: the overall aesthetic and interac tive experienc e of the museum, psychologica l and physiologic al facets, natural and artific ial light de sign a nd a mbianc e within ea ch exhibit. These qua litative attributes were a nalyzed and c ontributed to the lighting design of C ed ar Hill Museum of History. 18 N a sh e r Sc u lp t u re C e n t e r   Nasher Sculpture C enter is a ma gnific ent collec tion of sculpture a nd three dimensiona l arts in an interior and garden gallery. The a rc hitec ture a nd garden emb race the works. Renzo Piano de signed the c enter, whic h consists of a 55,000squa re foo t spa ce with four ac res of ga rden spa c e. The go al of the c enter is to have a sustainable place tha t will let the Nasher collec tion live timelessly. With the use of d aylight and natural stone architec tural elements, the Na sher Sculpture C enter definitely ac hieves a c ontrasting Zen feeling to the “rush and bustle” of  downtown Dallas. The garden also radiates calm and peacefulness, helping visitors connect with the natural space.  The Nasher C enter's arc hitec ture a nd lighting elements direc tly invite the viewer to experienc e the exhibits and art. The use o f da ylight is the signific ant effect, whic h evokes a Zen- c alming emotion in this space. Daylight is difficult to incorporate into a space because of the unpredictability of the weather and c limate–winter light, summer sunlight and an overcast da y all emit different c olor and light levels. Renzo c ond ucted studies of d aylight to assess different light levels and unde rstand how to c ompensate for differenc es. The c rea tion o f “glass c eiling” with spe cialized aluminum screen is the a rchitec tural feature that influenc es the experienc e in the museum. "Building upon the c onc ep t of a 'museum without a roo f,' the building's ba rrel-vaulted ceiling features delica te glass pa nes suspe nde d atop narrow steel ribs and supported by thin, stainless steel rods. The innovative cast aluminum sunscreen device - specially designed for this project -floats above 19 the glass allowing controlled natural light to filter into the galleries, eliminating the need fo r artificial illumination muc h of the time" (Na sher, 2009). The g lass c eiling-less permits a very even soft pool of light into in museum. Even though the light levels were very high, the fee ling was not harsh or too bright. It is very soothing and rela xing for guests to interact in the spac e. In return, the spac e itself invites visitors to enga ge with the artwork. Due to the presenc e o f da ylight and simple déc or, the sculptures are the emp hasized . In ad dition to the glass c eiling-less system, glass c urtain walls are o n the no rth and south side of the museum. The e ast and west wa lls are white Italian travertine with a matte finish. These ga lleries had a range of one hundred fifty-five foo tcandles to eighty foo tcandles (see Figure 3). The play of artificial and natural light is evident with the va rying light levels in both Galleries. In Gallery 1 (figure 3), the glass ceiling a nd curtain wa lls are providing most of the light for the a rtwork. Depending o f the loc ation o f artwork, the light levels fluctuate bec ause the daylight is the primary source for highlighting the art. In c ontrast, Gallery 2 (figure 4), artificial light contributes the e ven light levels throug hout the spa ce and displays.  The higher footca ndles are direc tly related to ea stern and we stern glass curtain wa lls that allow the daylight to pour into the spa c e. Even though the artwork in the midd le of Gallery 2 has lower light levels, the a rtificial light highlights the surfac es to c rea te a visual effect for viewer to be drawn to ea c h sculpture. In Figure 5, the vertical surfac es have very low light leve ls to dramatize the d isplays. In Display 1, a narrow spot punc hes the ba ckground a nd flood s provide the ambient light. Although the range of 7.2 to 3.4 footcandles is a little variance, the background c omes alive for the viewer to interact with the sc ene within the display. The 20 grad ual differenc es in light levels forces eye movement throughout the art. In c ontrast with Display 1, the Display 2 has layered vertical surfaces with the foreground is emphasized with six footca ndles compared to the b ackground of two foo tcandles. Visually, the viewer is foc used on the d eta ils in the foreground and this does not allow the eye to observe the entire artwork. Figure 4 (Hunt, 2009) Figure 5 21 (Hunt, 2009) In conc lusion, the Nasher Sculpture C enter is a dyna mic ga llery spa c e in the hea rt of Dallas with a subd ued Zen architec ture and sculpture ga rde n. The ga rden is unique ly de signed for interaction o f nature a nd a rt. The viewer is given a n information guide, which intrigues the pa tron to interact with art and artist’s intent.  The written de sc ription lea ds the viewe rs to ea c h piec e throughout the ga rde n.  The pa per guide a lso promotes variety of options of how the viewer wants to reflec t, c onne ct and experienc e a rt. Each artist’s inspiration, historic al ba c kground and persona l quote a re elements that excite the pa tron a bout the wo rk and enric h the expe rienc e. In the Nasher Sc ulpture C enter, ea c h labe l preserves particular elements for the a rt to rela te to viewers in timeless plac e The Bo b Bullo c k Te xa s Sta te Histo ry M use um   The Bob Bulloc k Texas History Museum is a museum that explains the story of   Texas. E. Verner J ohnson and Assoc iates designed an interactive experiential museum that tells of the story of Texas narrative fo rm. The museum immediately sets a dramatic , intimate tone . With three floo rs, the light levels are very low throug hout the museum. Déc or explains ea ch exhibit while the lighting emphasizes facets 22 within the exhibit. The c olor palette is simple, natural tone s of maroo ns, greens, da rk blues and browns. The p aint was eggshell with sued e o r linen background s in the displays to the a rtifac ts to be emphasized. The Bob Bulloc k Texas State History Museum ta rgets all age s to ha ve a unique experience throug h Texas history.  The first floo r depicts the land be fore Texas as a state. Several lighting tec hniques provide dimension to these exhibits. Layering of light with lumanaire types is the overall striking effec t is a fusion of trac k spots, do wn light cans and fiber op tic s for viewers to b e drawn into the exhibit. The varying light levels c rea te movement throug hout the first floo r. One area is thirty to forty footcandles, while the next exhibit is ten to fifteen footca ndles. The c abin and tee pee a rea had c omp letely different c olor and light levels to illustrate the cozy, co mforting fe eling as the view wa s at a typic al, early-Texas home . Therefore, the lighting provide s a pa th for doc ents to experienc e e ac h area and psychologica lly make a c onnec tion throug hout the first floo r. "Building the Lone Star identity" is the the me for the sec ond floor. This floor is more interac tive a nd experiential by wa lking through exhibits. The "Building the Lone Star Identity" was a walk-through exhibit with soft dimmed light to feel confined a nd in a c ontrolled prison environment. The lighting design crea tes a scary and mysterious unknown fee ling. "Nation bec omes a State" is an exhibit that represents a steamboat. The layering of light is c ontrasting with highlights and spots on elements of the stea mbo at. Wande ring throug h the exhibits, the décor and lighting dep icts ea c h sc ene, which direc tly impa c ts visitors and indirec tly forces the viewers to experience the history. 23 The “C entennia l Theater” represents 1930’s old theater. In Figure 6, the uplight co lumns are washed , which is the only light in the spa c e. The c ontrast of  zero to thirty foo tcandles crea tes the expe rienc e a s if a visitor was in a thea ter watching history unfold. The light ad aptation is a safety conc ern. Once the eyes adjusted to the light level differenc e, the foc us wa s on the historica l information. Figure 6 (Hunt, 2009) Finally, the third floor is "C reating O pportunity.” These exhibits explore the different type s of c ommerc e a nd how c ities flourished in Texas and the United States. Eac h area has spe cial lighting req uirement due to the variety of artifacts and d isplays. The va riety of historic al areas varies from a NASA control panel to a ranching sc ene to o il tanks to a n airplane o n the third floor. The "Oil Tank Thea ter" presents how the oil industry changed Texas. The theater had very low levels of  light with punc hes of light on the signage and g as pumps to incorporate theme of  history of Texas oil. Within the déc or, seve ral televisions play a mo vie, which 24 c omp letes the expe rienc e o f understand ing Texas Oil. The lighting is effec tive bec ause guests have to foc us on the story of oil. In "Texas and Nation,” the lighting is c onsistent and there a re higher light levels of forty to fifty footcandles. The displays and artifac ts were much larger in sc ale c ompared to the o ther area s of  the museum. Safety is a significant fac tor in the lighting of the spac e. The lighting did not have glare o r dramatic shad ows. Ano ther area of the third floo r is “Land of Opp ortunity” that d isplays of history of immigrants and different c ultural influenc es in Texas. In Figure 7, this display is made of vertical, flat surfaces with narrow spo ts emp hasizing pho tographs and information. The different light leve ls and layering of light give the display a hierarchy of importanc e of the information. In this display, information plaques have the highest footcandles with do wnlights highlighting the information for gue sts to rea d. The information at eye level is also highe r light levels. The lighting design is the critical component to this display because it directs the eye to follow the main c onc ept of the display. Figure 7 25 (Hunt, 2009) Th e Sa n A n t o n io M u se u m o f A rt    The San Antonio Museum of Art converted the Lone Star Brewe ry to house a variety of artworks from all c ultures from anc ient to present periods. The unique c ollec tion c ontains Pre-C olumbian to Egyptian to Asian to Europ ea n artifac ts. The San Antonio Museum of Art is over 55,000 square fe et with four levels. The o verall aesthetic of the museum wa s to c rea te a unique experience c ombining industrial brewe ry with cultural and historical artifacts. The a rea s are d ivided b y cultures and c ivilizations of the wo rld. Eac h different civilization is represented by a d istinc tive c olor with historical timelines and information.  The lighting de sign was tailored to ea c h area . Some exhibits fea ture very low levels of light for a d ramatic effect inside the d isplays. In contrast, sunlight c ontributes to the feeling a nd mood of the a rea . The Pre-C olombian exhibit is similar to the c alming feeling d ue to glass curtain walls emitting high light leve ls. Inside the display ca ses, the artifacts app ea r to c ome a live. Even though the light levels are high with daylight, the area is intriguing and inviting for viewers.  The lighting de sign and c olor pa lette crea tes movement through the exhibits in the San Antonio Museum o f Art. In the e ntry, a long, simple barrel vault corridor c onnec ts the Egyptian area to the G reek and Roma n sc ulpture room. A dramatic sculpture in front of a deep red wa ll pique s interests of the guests and draws them to go through the Egyptian area to experienc e more. Lighting p lays a critic al part of the Gree k and Roman sc ulpture roo m. C lerestory windows provide some da ylight. C ompared to the Pre-C olombian area , the Roma n and G reek sc ulpture 26 area has soft, drama tic lighting with narrow spots acc enting the sculptures. G lare is a negative aspect of this room due to the shiny surface on the flooring with high c onc entrations of spo ts and d own lights beaming d own from a pp roximately twenty- thirty foo t ceiling. The use of neutral co lors in the d ec or contributes to the impressive glow of the sculptures within the room. In the sec ond floor, lighting d esign is the single eleme nt that direc tly impa c ts the experienc e of the exhibit. The light levels are very low. The déc or and wo od finishes are dark tones. These tone s contribute to the mysterious and intriguing interac tion betwe en the displays. Once the eyes adjust to the low levels, the display c ases and exhibit vignettes come alive with the punc hes of light in the C hinese, J apa nese a nd South Asian area s. The eye foc uses on the details of the artifac ts more than the roo m. The lighting also c rea tes a soothing mood with c uriosity to wind throug h different area s. There a re also many interactive vignettes, which ena ble the guests to relate to A sian c ultures. The overall effect is succ essful be tween the floor layout, variety of displays and contrasting lighting.  The third floo r has the curvilinea r display elements and c ombination of  daylight and a rtificial illumination. Nea r Eastern Oc ea nic a rea plays with form, proportions and heights within the room. The lighting design is simple with high lights inside o n the artifac ts. Several exhibits have c urved platforms to emulate how the c ivilizations were c onne cted to the wa ter. The d isplays are va rying heights and proportions to have visual stimulation. C omp ared to the sec ond floo r, the C hinese and J apa nese a rea s are c entralized by the effect of light and the Nea r Eastern Ocea nic room is connec ted b y co lor and curvilinea r elements. The lighting is 27 critical for the Near Eastern Oceanic, but the color and curvilinear form set the tone of the a rea .  The San Antonio Museum of Art is "de dicated solely to furthering its mission to promote a deeper understanding of human cultures, values and traditions by displaying a nd interpreting art works from all c ultures and periods" (SAMA, 2009).  The museum is lively with artifac ts and how the items are displayed . The lighting design c rea tes ea c h exhibit's identity and distinguishes the different area with co lor and light levels. M o d e rn A rt M u se u m o f Fo rt W o rt h    The Mo dern Art Museum of Fort Worth is a new icon not only for the city of  Forth Worth, but the e ntire c ontempo rary art community. Tada o A ndo crea ted a 53,000 square foot gallery space with modular design that connects a place for the fusion of lives with art. The mission of the museum is to “c ollecting, presenting, interpreting Internationa l develop ment in post World War II art in med ia a nd c rea ting a welcoming environment for public app rec iation.” The Mod ern Art Museum of Fort Worth stands strongly behind its mission. The museum’s permanent c ollec tion c ontains 3,000 works. Each fac et of the museum demo nstrates the c onnec tion of the public with mode rn art. Once inside the main lobby, a wa ter fea ture surprises ea c h guest. The wa ter fea ture c annot be viewe d from the exterior of the building. The arc hitec ture automa tically draws the pa tron into spac e a nd c rea tes a desire to know more about what the museum may c ontain. A long corrido r separates the museum for public a nd private area s. The a rc hitec ture a nd lighting direc t the guests to the 28 public a rea s. The right side c onta ins the offices and supp ort staff for the ope rations for the museum. The left side o f the museum is the public a rea . In the pub lic area , there is gift shop , main ga lleries, and c afé. The front desk is strategica lly plac ed in the middle of the main co rridor for easy ac cess. The signs and gue st services are effortlessly visible for visitors.  The arc hitec tural elements c ontribute to the experienc e of the museum. The water feature, natural light, and rich materials enhance the Zen feeling of the spac e. The surprise element is revea led that only surrounds exterior of the ga llery area s of the museum. The wa ter can only viewed throug h the large glass c urtain wall from the intimate spa ces crea ted b y the a rchitecture. In add ition to the wa ter, the simple white g allery wa lls give c ontrast to the a rchitec ture a nd a rt without do minating the spa ce. The other architectural materials, conc rete, granite, woo d, steel and g lass, enhance the wa rmth and c omplement interac tion with the a rt.  The museum layout is a simplified modular design where ea c h roo m flows into the next space. The museum has two floors. The ma in c orridor is similar on bo th floors. It also a ids finding your wa y through the museum. The first floor is mainly reserved for the permanent collec tion. The sec ond floo r has a spec ial exhibition. From the main museum entrance, there is a main corridor that connects each smaller spac e. The smaller spa ces are d arker to c rea te a more intimate experienc e. The spa c e c rea tes a feeling or sense of pea ceful journey and flow.  The interior arc hitec ture divides into intimates smaller spa c es for unique p ieces to have persona l reflec tion with the art. Other fascinating design a spe c ts of the museum a re the pa rtic ular large lofty rooms that are doub le height volumes with 29 daylight pouring into the spac e. Layering natural and a rtific ial light empha sizes the volume of the spa c e a nd dramatizes the artwork. These spa ces can be viewed from b oth the first and sec ond floo rs. The d oub le height volumes promo te the dialog o f peop le and art. The spaces also give 3D art various pe rspe ctives to ob serve the a rt.  The Mo dern Art Museum of Fort Worth is exclusive, unique e xperienc e to interac t with a va riety of med ia. The a rchitec ture, c ustomer service, ga llery spac e and patron amenities contribute distinctive successful approach to display art in a c onc rete modular building. The a rc hitec tural design enhanc es the interac tion with ea c h art piec e. The c rea tive d ivision o f ga llery spa ces lea ds the p atrons to have pe rsona l reflec tion with pa rticular favorite masterpiec es. Overall, the Mod ern Art Museum of Fort Worth brings a new experience to the concept of art museums and interaction with peo ple. The a rchitec tural design and diverse a rt collec tion c rea te an environment for art appreciation to be in everyday life. 30 LIGHTING DESIGN: C EDAR HILL MUSEUM OF HISTORY Concept   The lighting design c onc ept of the C ed ar Hill Museum of History is like a geod e. A g eode is a type o f roc k with a rough exterior that gives no indic ation of  the be auty held within its core. Eac h roc k is unique in c omposition a nd c annot be truly discovered until crac ked open. Once a guest enters the museum, the geode inspired lighting design is reve aled. This 3,000-square-foot museum is a U-shaped building with a c entralized c ourtyard within the museum. The designed spa c e explains where a c ommunity meets heritag e and nature. Eac h layer of light symbolizes a layer in the g eo de . The indirec t, direc t, downlight, uplight, spo ts, floo ds, trac k systems and pe nda nts are all luminaries that c ontribute to the layering effec t of light in the museum. The c ombination of metal halide, compac t fluorescents, fiber optics, Gobo projectors, and linear fluorescents produce the op timal qua lity of light a nd illuminate the c rea tive designe d exhibits: Natural History,  Tornado in Penn House, Railroa d Dep ot, Co mmerc e, Farming and Ranching,  Television Towers, Oral History, and Temporary exhibit (figure 4). Entry   The entry of the museum is the “wow” spa ce that invites guests to experienc e the museum. The unique, lowered c eiling with co mpa ct fluorescent downlights emits an even pool of light in figure 9. The custom glass geod e inspired topography sculpture is highlighted with metal halide PAR 20 floods and punched 31 with meta l halide PAR 20 narrow spo ts lights. Behind the rec ep tion desk, the C ed ar Hill Museum of History’s logo is bac k light with downlights to welcome the guests to enter the museum. Na tu ra l Histo ry   The Natural History exhibit is a p hotographic mural of C ed ar Hill landsc apes. Within the mural, niches display artifacts and historic al information of the C ed ar Hill natural history. The mural is wa shed by metal halide PAR 20 Flood s on a trac k system (see figure 10). On the same trac k system, metal halide PA R 20 spots direct the guests to partic ular points of interest in this exhibit. The nic hes are illuminated b y fiber optics with five to seven footc andles to a c centuate the d etail of the a rtifac ts of the natural history. 32 To rn a d o in Pe n n H o u se    The Penn family is a p rominent family in Cedar Hill. In 1856, C ed ar Hill was hit by two tornados at the same time that destroyed a large pa rt of the arc hitec tural history of the town. This exhibit de pic ts the fee ling o f being in a tornad o in the Penn family’s home. The exterior of the house is highlighted with metal halide PA R 20 floo ds (see figure 11). The interior has comp act fluorescent downlights to a llow visitors to enter the house ea sily. The GOBO projec tor crea tes the lighting a nd series of c olor changes through a tornad o. There a re flat LC D pa nels in eac h window illustrating the effects of a tornado as a person would see from a window. 33 Ra ilro a d D e p o t a n d C o m m e rc e   After experienc ing the 1956 tornado , guests are surprised with a lowered railroa d trac k ceiling and a Railroa d dep ot in the c enter of exhibit. The railroa d ties are direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendants that are used as a feature through this exhibit to help visitors find their wa y. The indirect portion of light illuminates a gravel ceiling with direc t light emitting on the entire a rea . C ommerce a ligns the wa lls with 2-D cutouts with murals of the C ed ar Hill Fire Station, Straus Hotel and Mr. Pa yne’s ge neral store. The metal halide PA R 20 narrow spots highlight the 2-D c utouts with layering me tal halide PAR 20 floods on the murals in figure 12. The highest light levels mea sure. The north wa ll is a gla ss c urtain to emit natural light into the spa c e. The use of da ylight add s a c alming c omponent to the experienc e. Punches of metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots are used on the information plaques as well. 34 Fa rm in g a n d Ra n c h in g    The Farming and Ranching exhibit foc uses on the “full da y in C ed ar Hill.” The ea st and south wall have p hotographic murals of a ranching a nd farming sc ene. A trac k system of meta l halide PAR 20 floods wa shes the murals (see figure 13). The ceiling has several layers to represent clouds that light effect change to emulate wea ther and time of da y c hanges. A G OBO projec tor is used in the c eiling to c rea te the lighting e ffec ts. The west wa ll is a glass curtain that a llows da ylight to po ur into the spa c e. C ompact fluoresc ent do wnlights provide light for evening in the spa c e. The d isplay ca ses have linea r fluorescents with spe c ial angular lens to distribute the light in the c ase fo r viewing a nd no glare. 35 Te le v isio n To w e rs Histo ry  C edar Hill is the highe st point from the Red River to Houston, Texas. Over time, television towe rs have become an ic on of the landscape of C edar Hill. This west wall illustrates a timeline with mural photographs to the history of the towers. Similar to the fa rming a nd ranc hing e xhibit, the meta l halide PAR 20 floo ds emp hasize the information on the wall in figure 13. 36 O ra l Histo ry   The Oral History is a nook spa ce within the natural history area (see figure 10).  The c eilings are 12 feet with c ove lighting. The spa c e is func tiona l with tables and a c omp uter with which to c ond uct researc h. The lighting is even pool of indirec t light for guests to research fa mily history, lea rn more about C edar Hill History, or listen to testimonials of oral history. The light levels can be adjusted for different guests and uses of the spa ce. Te m p o ra ry Exhib it A re a   The temporary exhibit area is a flexible spa c e for different traveling exhibits.  The trac king system is three feet off the wa lls with different light sources. In figure 14, Meta l halide PAR 20 flood s, PAR 20 narrow spo ts, a nd downlights are luminaries for the track system. In general, the walls are washed . 37 Lig h t in g D e sig n C o n sid e ra t io n s   In the C ed ar Hill Museum of History, the lighting design ha s several c onsiderations that affec t the lighting a nd spa tial c onc epts. C olor rendered index, color temperature, texture, form, viewing angles, layered light, and maintenance are a ll fac tors that co ntribute to the who le. The spec ified lamps have high c olor rend er inde x and 3,500 Kelvin. The lighting maintena nce is c onvenient bec ause a limited number of lamp types are selec ted for the museum a nd loc ation o f  luminaries are a wa y from the exhibits. Eac h of exhibit area uses layers of light to attrac t the guests to rea d a nd lea rn from eac h historica l time period . These c onside rations allow the lighting d esign to fuse lighting elements with an architectural designed space to create an effective and functional design for humans to enjoy the e xpe riential interaction. 38 FIGURES Figure 1 (DiC ha ra, 690, 2007) 39 Figure 2 40 (DiC ha ra, 690, 2007) Figure 3 41 (DiC ha ra, 690, 2007) 42 Figure 4 (Hunt, 2009) 43 Figure 8 (Hunt, 2009) 44 Figure 9 (Hunt, 2009) 45 Figure 10 (Hunt, 2009) 46 Figure 11 (Hunt, 2009) 47 Figure 12 (Hunt, 2009) 48 Figure 13 (Hunt, 2009) 49 Figure 14 (Hunt, 2009) 50 DEFINITIONS CRI- C o l o r Re n d e r in g I n d e x  is degree of c olor shift objec ts undergo when illuminated by the light source a s c ompared with a c olor of those same o bjec ts undergo when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature (RP-30-96, 84, 1996). CC T- C o r re l a t e d C o l o r Te m p e r a t u re  is light source will determine whether the display takes on a "coo l" or "wa rm" appe arance, expressed in Kelvin. Highe r Kelvin is a more cool appearance; lower Kelvin temperature corresponds to a wa rmer app ea rance of the light source (RP-30-96, 84, 1996). Luminance- is the luminous intensity of a surfac e o r ob jec t. The light can be objectively measured when reflected from or transmitted through an object.  The unit of measure is expressed in footca ndles? I don’t know what you mea nt by produces footcandles. (Ega n, 394, 2002). Glare- harsh, uncomfortably bright light source or reflection that interferes with visual pe rc ep tion. Light from the wrong p lac e a t grea ter brightness than that to which eyes are adapted. (Ega n, 391, 2002). Lux- metric unit of qua ntity of light on 1 m squa red of surface a rea 1 m awa y from light source of 1 c d( 1lx equal to 0.009fc). (Egan, 394, 2002). Foot Candle (fc) – quantity of light on 1 foo t squa red of surfac e area 1 foot awa y from light source of 1 cd (Ega n,390, 2002). Candelas (cd)- unit of luminous intensity equal to 1 candlep ower. LED- Lig h t - Em it t in g D i o d e s  – low-power, small po int sources. Typically ambe r, orang e , o r red , they are used in traffic signals, commerc ial ad vertising signa ge and e xit signs (Ega n, 393, 2002). Fluorescent lamp- discharge lam which emits electron arc stream from c athodes at end s. Fluoresce nt phosphor c oa ting on inside of bulb transforms ultra-violet energy into visible light (Egan, 390, 2002). Incandescent lamp- lamp in which light is produced by heating filament to incandescenc e (i. e., po int of emitting light) by mea ns of a n elec tric current (Ega n, 392, 2002). HID- H ig h In t e n sit y D isc h a rg e l a m p  - disc harge lamp which passes a high pressure elec tron a rc strea m through a g as vap or. Examples are merc ury, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamp s (Egan, 392, 2002). 51 Illuminance ( E)- qua ntity of light (fc or lx) which reaches a surfac e. To c onvert lux to foot candles, multiply by 0.09 (Egan, 392, 2002). Cut off -has and is being used to describe luminaries that have no direct up light (no light emitted abo ve horizonta l). Howe ver, in addition to that limitation, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) de finition also requires luminaries to c omply with the g lare requirement limiting intensity of light from the luminaire in the region be tween 80° and 90°. Spill Light falls outside of the a rea intended to be lighted (RP-30-96, 55,1996). Luminaire – c omp lete lighting unit c onsisting o f lamp o r lamps together with parts to position and protect lamp, direct light , and connect lamp to a power supply. Also referred to as a fixture (RP-30-96, 84, 1996). Diffused lighting- lighting, provided on the work-plane or on a n ob ject, that is not predominantly incident from any partic ular direc tion (RP-30-96, 83, 1996). Fill light- supp lementary illumination to reduce shadow or c ontrast range. (RP-3096, 83). Filter- a device for changing, by transmission or reflection, the magnitude or spec tral c omposition of the flux incident upon it (RP-30-96, 84, 1996). 52 REFERENC ES Bob Bullock Texas State Museum History Museum. (Site Visit Ma rch 4, 2009). Bob Bulloc k Texas State Museum History Museum. Retrieved March 1, 2009. www.storyof texas.com De C hiara, J . & C rosbie, M.J . (Eds) (2007). Tim e -Sa vo r Sta nd a rd s fo r Build ing  Typ e s  . New York: Mc G raw-Hill. Ega n, M.D. & OIgyay, V. W. (2002). A r c h it e c t u ra l Lig h t in g  . New York: Mc Graw-Hill. Falzano, Rebec ca. (2009. February). Where lights Meets Landsca pe. LD+A M u se u m o n D isp la y , Volume 39/ No.02, p. 27-31. Florentine, F. et. al. (1996) Museum and Art Gallery Lighting: A Rec ommendation Prac tice RP-30-96. New York: IESNA. Florentine, Frank. 2009. (February). Museums and the Green World. LD+A M u se u m o n D isp la y , Volume 39/ No.02, p. 47-49 Hunt, Elizabeth. 2009 Drawings. Karlen, M. & Benya, J . (2004). Lighting Design Basics. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons. Liapi, K. (1989). Natural light in Museums. (Masters dissertation, University of   Texas, 1989). University of Texas, Austin. Liapi, K. (1994). Art Museums, an experienc e in Light: the Role of light in the Experienc e of the Art Museum. (Doctors of Philosop hy dissertation, University of Texas, 1994). University of Texas, Austin. Lindgren, Mark. (Personal Interview, M arch 4, 2009). Lowe, Roslyn. 2009. (February). Diorama Drama . LD + A M u se u m o n D isp la y , Volume 39/No.02, p. 36-41. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (Site Visit April 3, 2008). Nasher Sculpture C enter. (2009). Retrieved J anuary 28, 2009. From Building and Garden: Building detail www.nashersculpturecenter.org. 53
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STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN

Approved: ____________________________ Dr. Heather C. Galloway Director, University Honors Program

Approved: ____________________________ Dr. Hegde Department of Family Consumer Science Supervising Professor

STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN HONORS THESIS Presented to the Honors Committee of Texas State University-San Marcos In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Graduation in the University Honors Program

By Elizabeth Gay Hunt San Marcos, Texas May 2009

STUDY OF MUSEUM LIGHTING AND DESIGN

ABSTRACT
A museum is a place to discover, explore and learn about the past, present and future of creativity, as well as history. Lighting plays a significant role in developing interaction between humans and museum artifacts in one defined space. " Museums are places where lighting design is critical to the overall experience”(Lowe,43, 2009). Lighting is essential for human interaction in a space. Technical illumination research lays a foundation to conduct analysis in a variety of museums. This research component is significant to understand the complexity and various facets of overall museum lighting design. This study evaluates both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of lighting design in four museums. Psychological, physiological and experiential components are observed in these museums’ environments to analyze lighting design within its exhibits. My observations and knowledge gained by studying these museums help influence and enhance the design of the Cedar Hill Museum of History.

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DEDICATION
This Honor Thesis is dedicated in memory of my mother, Carolyn T. Hunt. She instilled in me the idea that we live a short time on Earth. She often said, “We are given talents that we must give back to the community and help others.” The Cedar Hill Museum of History lighting design is a reflection of how she contributed to the community of Cedar Hill and helped mold the community into what is today. My mother inspired me to explore my creativity as child. With this inspiration, I have followed my passion of designing and teaching. I would not be the outgoing person that I am without her constant love, patience and strength. In addition to my mother, Harry Duff Hunt III and Kristofer Duff Hunt are two personal heroes who have given me endless amounts of love, support and encouragement to be the best “Busybeth” that I can be. And, finally, I am very grateful for Dr. Asha Hegde Neizgoda. She came into my life at a critical time when I was struggling with how I fit into the “design world.” She is a life-changing mentor who has given me opportunities for self discovery and personal growth. Dr. Neizgoda has challenged me to open my eyes to my passion– Lighting Design.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT..............................................................................................4 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................7 LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................................................................7 MUSEUM ANALYSIS..............................................................................................19 LIGHTING DESIGN.................................................................................................32 FIGURES................................................................................................40 DEFINITIONS..........................................................................................51 REFERENCES.........................................................................................53

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explore and learn. Lighting is a critical component in a museum environment because the space enables visitors to see objects. as well as preserve the condition of artifacts. the role of light is an essential part of creating an atmosphere prime for discovery. Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) provides parameters and standards for lighting design in a museum to ensure safety. experience new sights and react to the surrounding environment. environments have two types of light–natural and artificial. Daylight Museum designs incorporate daylight because humans relate to nature.
 Introduction The purpose of my thesis is to study qualitative and quantitative aspects of museum lighting design in existing installations. The literature encompasses qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of lighting in a museum. Lighting plays a significant role in developing interaction between humans and museum artifacts in one defined space. explore and learn about history in a creative environment. preserve artifacts. The museum design will guide the visitors to discover. A brief review of literature will help understand this thesis. Typically." The goal of a museum is to create an interactive experience for the guests. "Natural Light can be used to great effect to dramatize and enliven the design of 6
 
 . For a museum. This can be a very difficult balancing act between meeting preservation needs and forming interactive experiences that achieve the goal of the museum–a place to discover. while also preserving artifacts. and create an interactive experience for guests of all ages.

Various heights and room depths also can affect human perception of space. and their 7
 
 . The amount of daylight penetrating the museum interior must be given serious consideration to understand how natural light impacts the space. 30. guests may experience discomfort while interacting in the museum. the time of day and a building’s position are factors directly impacting lighting design and how humans experience the space. The placement of windows or glazings and the available amount of natural light gives the design variety. Light defines a space within a building’s design. The amount of daylight and how natural light is filtered into a space will create several different effects in a specific space. the space can feel confined and stagnant. Materials and finishes that are too shiny or reflective create glare.
 any building (De Chiara. acclimation and delineation in the space should be analyzed closely. if a room is small with high ceilings and a punch of daylight. interior finishes can create more reflective surfaces and cause a negative effect. season. 1996). glare. 1996). 690. IESNA has researched and made factors that “affect the final luminance produced by architectural surfaces and daylight” (RP-30-96. When daylight is introduced in a space. it will be perceived as being larger. Scale and proportion are important considerations. If there is glare or too much reflective light. Factors such as reflection. 2007). Daylight always fluctuates and often is fused in interactive spaces. 30. Cloud cover. The “ceiling height and room depth” directly correlate to the amount of daylight absorbed and explore the intent of light in the space (RP30-96. If a room is large with low ceilings and little daylight. Interior materials and finishes should be selected to contribute to the overall aesthetic of the space. “Reflecting characteristics of the interior surfaces” is another factor with IESNA standards. For example.

Artificial Illumination Several types of artificial light sources are used in interior applications to provide light for visibility. Mr. light levels can be higher. 14. Therefore. Lindgren. cold cathode and 8
 
 . daylight and preservation of artifacts usually conflict and must sometimes compromise for a museum design’s sake. Typical interior artificial light sources include incandescent. accent and decoration. Natural light has a high light output and contains very high concentrations of Ultraviolet rays. light exposure will affect artifacts. In addition. Thus. 2009). HID. this light has negative impact on artifacts. When artifacts are made of metal or leather. Mr. Texas. Lindgren also says that the museum is more sensitive to light levels on documents and artifacts and the museum has to be very careful with preservation. Lindgren tries to protect the museums’ contents and keeps light levels closer to four to five fc because the museum does not own them (Lindgren. a lighting and exhibit technician.
 experience will be greatly altered. In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History in Austin. 1996). While daylight adds to the overall ambiance of the space. tasks. IESNA standards range from five to 30 foot-candles depending on the type of artifact (RP-30-96. Lighting design needs to encompass the dynamics of daylight and use light properly to assist in creating an interactive and comfortable museum experience. fiber optics. artifacts and the museum dictate how daylight can be used in the space. says Mr. These UV rays are known to damage textiles and artifacts. fluorescent. artifacts are all borrowed and not owned by the museum.

collection storage is five footcandles and collection handling is twenty to fifty footcandles. The type of artifacts in the museum is a significant detail in order to establish the amount of light level and light exposure to the objects. With indirect lighting. fluorescent lamps are used to diffuse illumination quality. The location and purpose of the light. storage and handling. along with the type of light source. cabinet and under-shelf lighting. HID and PARs are the most common for general lighting. Light Levels Light levels are based on the visibility as well as the accessibility in the museum space. The overall objective in a museum’s lighting design is to light individual objects with consideration to the sensitivity of the object and how guests will view it. Incandescent lamps are generally used for ambient and accent lighting with track luminaires. tungsten halogen. In museums. According to IESNA standards for museums. 44. incandescent. become crucial in providing the correct amount of light and the lamp properties for interior applications in the museum. Flood lighting typically consists of recessed down lights or track-mounted fixtures with incandescent. The quantitative measurements of light in museums are determined by the exhibit type. compact fluorescents. Incandescent. tungsten halogen and HID light sources (RP-30-96. tungsten Halogen. compact fluorescent. metal halide and fiber optic are recommended to use in case. collection. In the IESNA’s required light levels. If the 9
 
 . Accent lighting include PAR-type incandescent and tungsten halogen. fiber optic and HID are the most common light sources. 1996).
 LEDs.

Sensitive objects have fifteen to twenty footcandles. 1996). diffuse. 12. globes and chandeliers. 13. Styles of Luminaires Luminaires are characterized by the way light is distributed. (RP-30-96. There are several other luminaire types including: direct. asymmetric uprights. Direct luminaires emit light downward. Diffuse luminaires emit light in all directions uniformly. 2007). Direct signage is twenty to thirty footcandles (RP-30-96. 690. Guests’ safety and preservation of artifacts are critical in an exhibit’s design. “Light fixtures are the luminaires that are permanently attached to the building” (Karlen. Indirect luminaires emit light upward that bounces from the ceiling into a space. 10. 2004). 1996). downlights and adjustable. Ambient lighting usually consists of five to 30 footcandles. These include most types of recessed lighting with downlights and troffers. visitor pathways and text panels all are required to be ten to thirty footcandles. (RP-30-96. Within the interior space.
 exhibit is very sensitive. While older adults need a minimum of ten fc. 11. ramps and stairs. Another factor in lighting a museum is the accessible light levels throughout the exhibits ranges from five to thirty footcandles. the footcandle requirement ranges from five to ten. These include most bare lamps. direct/indirect. sconces and some portable lamps. indirect. Less sensitive objects can have thirty to fifty footcandles (De Chiara. 1996). Many styles include suspended luminaires. An individual less than forty years old needs five to twenty fc to adequately see details within an interior space. 10
 
 . The age of viewers and light levels directly impact the experience of the museum.

The eye has the ability to perceive things and operate under very bright lighting conditions. Changes from high to low luminance can affect guests in the museum depending on age and visual difficulties. floodlights and accent lights. might it difficult to see the exhibit" (Wilson. The eye also has the ability to change shape to focus on objects and make meaning out of the information received. IESNA also suggests another criterion of observation that says the 11
 
 . 32). as well as adapt to moonlight and mid-day sunlight. 1996). In order for a human to see an object and its details. Direct/ indirect also can be semi-direct or semi-indirect according to the proportions of up and down light. "Adaptation is eight minutes adequate for the eye to adapt and one hours in extreme conditions between high to low light levels" (RP-3096. This process is called accommodation. (Karlen. These include track lights. This process is not instantaneous. Visual Adaptation and Accommodation The human eye is highly adaptive. "There are limits to the range of luminance that the eye can adapt to at any one time.
 Direct/indirect luminaires emit light upward and downward. such as away from a wall. Wall washers are form of direct luminaire with stronger distribution to one side so as to illuminate a wall. and areas where brightness is too high will become glare. This unique ability is called adaption. Visual adaption is the amount of time it takes a human eye to acclimatize to new surroundings. Asymmetric luminaires are usually designed for special applications. These include many types of suspended luminaires as well as table lamps. 12 & 59. Asymmetric uplights are indirect luminaires with stronger distribution in one direction. Adjustable luminaires are generally direct luminaires that can be adjusted to throw light in directions other than down. a lighting designer needs to analyze how the guests will interact with the exhibits to properly take visual adaptation into consideration. 13. 2004). but not to the side.

12
 
 . "Glare is the bright light that can interfere with visual perception (Egan. 2002). Direct glare is the bright light source directly impacting the field of vision. The light sources must be farther away from the case with a wide flood fixture to widely disperse the light without direct aim on the glass case (Lingren. The smaller or more detailed an object is. the more light is required.
 "display of the objects should be the brightest elements in view" (RP-30-96 59. Lingren explained to the issue with glare and the challenge to highlight display cases without glare or shadowing. glare can cause severe problems and interfere with the interactive experience. Glare In addition to visual adaptation. Therefore. In the Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History to alleviate glare problems. 27. Reflective glare is the reflection of an image from a light source on specific shiny surfaces. Mr. 1996). 2009). but the amount of luminance and difference from one level to another is a significant factor in lighting of a museum. There are two types of glare. 2002). An example of this would include a down light aimed on the granite floor that makes a bright spot (Egan. In museums. the human eye has the ability to be very receptive to light. This includes a fixture aimed in direct line of sight. eyes can perceive conditions that are too bright and cause discomfort. 27.

color consistency is very important for exhibits and displays to appear true to color. 4-5. Retail. The scale is from zero to 100.
 LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS To have a successful lighting design. and purpose. Natural light is 100. An understanding of these factors allows the lighting designer to fuse lighting elements with an architectural designed space to create an effective and functional design for humans to interests and experience the space. the artifacts and displays are the primary focus. work spaces and museums need a high CRI for the human eye to react favorably. viewing angles. In addition to CRI. Color rendered. CRI is critical depending on the intent of the space. objects. texture. 12. lighting designers have particular considerations that affect lighting on space. Within museums. retail and museum spaces. color temperature. In the context of interior museums. which has the best color rendering properties. form. Color Rendering Index Color Rendering Index (CRI) describes the true hue that appears from a light source. color consistency should be evaluated in interior spaces. 2004). “Color rendition depends on the lamp 13
 
 . The background color or color surrounding the objects can alter the color viewed on the artifacts (RP-30-96. The materials and finishes will appear different under different types of artificial light sources. the displays and exhibits should have a high CRI and general lighting can have a lower CRI (Karlen. 1996). The Lighting Basics Design suggests 80-100 CRI for work. In a museum. layered light and maintenance are all factors that contribute to the whole.

2004). 80. 80. Several lamp types can compensate for color shifting and distortion. Incandescent lamps render red and yellow hues more truly than blue. blue will appear dull blue. reflective properties of the surface and context” ( Egan.000K. 2004). Museums’ goals are to preserve artifacts and educate viewers about the historical past.500K. 2002). Kelvin is the appropriate unit for color temperature with a scale from zero to 8. The higher color temperature is suggested in special-applications lighting where color discrimination is significant (Karlen. This color temperature is perceived as being “warm and cozy. Under an incandescent lamp. Warm light ranges from yellow to red-tinted light that is in the range of 2. 1996). as well as lighting ranges from 2.600 to 8. The context relates to the experience and expectations of the individual with normal color vision. Cool light is observed as blue to white hues. Fluorescent lamps have higher color rendering concentrations. blue and yellow appear the same as the true hue (Egan.” High pressure sodium and incandescent lighting fall in the warm color temperature range. 2002). The lighting designer must understand the intent and use of color within the space to accent or maintain the experiential effect in the exhibit (RP-30-96. 5.
 color spectrum. 14
 
 . Therefore.950 to 4. 12. The museum lighting designs success includes the correct use of color and how lighting can impact that use of color. Color Temperature Color temperature is another factor for lighting design that explains how light appears warm or cool.000K. A cold and sterile “feeling” is usually associated with 3. 5. red.100K (Karlen.500 to 3. red will be a bright red and yellow will be a bright yellow.

luminaries are aimed at 30 degrees from the vertical to produce minimal shadows. these forms and textures are critical to light. “The two or more luminaires are aimed at 30 degree angle to highlight 3-D form of an artifact or architecture. 690. 690.
 Form. 12. 12. With 2-D objects. For permanent objects or free-standing displays. In a museum. zero to twenty degrees in front of the surface to emphasize the texture or design details (RP-30-96. & Artifacts Architects and Interior Designers create structures and spaces to impact buildings. floors. Most viewers are affected by lighting in positive or negative ways. the lamp position is ideally from sixty to seventy degrees (De Chiara. 1996). ceilings. the viewer feels the negative experience by noticing glare. Using the correct angles of light to highlight architectural details is essential for a lighting designer to do in order to enrich the experience. walls. The viewing angles are “measured from a point at the wall and 5. and other features can become surprise elements for lighting in a space. but cannot explain what made the positive or negative experience. as well as artifacts. lamp position and viewing angle contribute to museum 15
 
 . According to IENSA standards. Texture. Therefore. When the lighting and architecture are not compatible.4 ft about the finish floor should be forty-five and seven-five degree from the horizontal to the lamp position in the light fixture” (Figure 1 and 2) (De Chiara. 1996). glare free viewing” (RP-30-96. the brightness or darkness of an exhibit and how easy it is to see artifacts. In addition to materials and finishes. 2007).2007) (Figure 3). luminaires are aimed at a steep angle. The angles of the luminaries and viewing angles are considered for museum lighting design. luminaire tilt.

Layering Light Lighting design achieves composition and understanding visual aesthetics by layering light. Architecture.” This layer is ornamentation in the space and not a light source. These combinations of layers. sconces. pendants. High ambient and task light levels create a more relaxing and cheerful focus.
 lighting design. artwork. 2007). Each layer lights certain tasks. All of these layers should be in place to achieve a successful museum lighting system. retail displays and signage are emphasized by focal lighting. In museum lighting design. create a complete lighting system. and decorative are all layers that contribute to the overall aesthetic of a space. 16
 
 . the space will have a more dramatic feeling. task. lanterns. The IESNA standards provide standards for lighting that allow the guests to see the forms and textures. focal. lamps and surface lights are all decorative luminaires (Karlen. All the layers work together to create a whole. cohesive design (Karlen. The main idea behind focal lighting is to draw attention to the object or detail and not the light itself. Decorative layers are considered the “jewelry of architecture. With a low ambient and high task light level. with different light levels. Chandeliers. This type of lighting allows one the ability to move through space and is significantly lower than task light levels. including reading or writing. Ambient layering is the overall lighting of a room. Task layer is lighting used to perform work. 56-57. 2007). Focal layers are primarily used for highlighting features or displays. Track lighting is a common type of focal lighting. Downlights or pendants are common forms of task lighting. 56. the ambient.

This allows flexibility for aiming the light and creating adjustments for the museum. spots and floods. In order to maintain the integrity of the lighting museum design. but reducing the number of different lamps and using multipurpose luminaries assists in maintaining a successful lighting design. the location of luminaires is important for replacement of lamps and re-aiming luminaires. Storage space and reordering costs need to be taken into account. track lighting and downlights are the only light sources. When selecting luminaires. 17
 
 . Mr. 2009). Lindgren explained that lamps will have to be changed and luminaires may be located far from the exhibit. The museum also only has six different lamp types (Lindgren.
 Maintenance Lighting design is often very complex. The Bob Bullock Texas Museum of History uses track lighting with three to five different luminaries: downlights. In addition to lamps and luminaires. the maintenance of the luminaires and lamps must be easy to access and change. The distance is due to some of the exhibits being permanent or are difficult to relocate. In the San Antonio Museum of Art and Nasher Sculpture Center.


 MUSEUM ANALYSIS Method & Procedure Museum visitations are a critical component to the analysis of this thesis. Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History in Austin. The purpose of the museum analysis is to experience several different types of museums. Texas were visited and analyzed for this thesis. observe the visual effects of lighting in interior spaces. compare lighting aesthetics and visual features. Light readings were recorded in several parts of the exhibits and displays. Texas. Texas. In addition to the quantitative measurements. a qualitative assessment was performed in all visited museums. natural and artificial light design and ambiance within each exhibit. record light levels. assess the differences and similarities that inspire the lighting design of the Cedar Hill Museum of History. The measurements were taken with a light meter model: Ideal-Sperry 61-680. and. finally. Texas. Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas. A quantitative light measurement was conducted in the Nasher Sculpture Center and Bob Bullock Texas State Museum of History as well as the display areas. fixture type and numeric value in footcandles. 18
 
 . These qualitative attributes were analyzed and contributed to the lighting design of Cedar Hill Museum of History. The qualitative criteria included: the overall aesthetic and interactive experience of the museum. San Antonio Museum of Art in San Antonio. psychological and physiological facets. and Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth in Fort Worth. The measurements were taken on a sketched elevation or floor plan diagram of the specific area with the type of light source.

The Nasher Center's architecture and lighting elements directly invite the viewer to experience the exhibits and art. The use of daylight is the significant effect. With the use of daylight and natural stone architectural elements. which evokes a Zen. the Nasher Sculpture Center definitely achieves a contrasting Zen feeling to the “rush and bustle” of downtown Dallas. stainless steel rods. The innovative cast aluminum sunscreen device .calming emotion in this space. The garden also radiates calm and peacefulness.
 Nasher Sculpture Center Nasher Sculpture Center is a magnificent collection of sculpture and threedimensional arts in an interior and garden gallery. Daylight is difficult to incorporate into a space because of the unpredictability of the weather and climate–winter light.' the building's barrel-vaulted ceiling features delicate glass panes suspended atop narrow steel ribs and supported by thin. summer sunlight and an overcast day all emit different color and light levels. helping visitors connect with the natural space. The goal of the center is to have a sustainable place that will let the Nasher collection live timelessly. The architecture and garden embrace the works. "Building upon the concept of a 'museum without a roof. which consists of a 55. Renzo conducted studies of daylight to assess different light levels and understand how to compensate for differences. The creation of “glass ceiling” with specialized aluminum screen is the architectural feature that influences the experience in the museum. Renzo Piano designed the center.000square foot space with four acres of garden space.specially designed for this project -floats above 19
 
 .

It is very soothing and relaxing for guests to interact in the space. the artificial light highlights the surfaces to create a visual effect for viewer to be drawn to each sculpture. Depending of the location of artwork. The 20
 
 .4 footcandles is a little variance. 2009). the feeling was not harsh or too bright. In contrast. The east and west walls are white Italian travertine with a matte finish. Due to the presence of daylight and simple décor. Even though the light levels were very high.2 to 3. Even though the artwork in the middle of Gallery 2 has lower light levels. Gallery 2 (figure 4). glass curtain walls are on the north and south side of the museum. artificial light contributes the even light levels throughout the space and displays.
 the glass allowing controlled natural light to filter into the galleries. The play of artificial and natural light is evident with the varying light levels in both Galleries. Although the range of 7. These galleries had a range of one hundred fifty-five footcandles to eighty footcandles (see Figure 3). the glass ceiling and curtain walls are providing most of the light for the artwork. The glass ceiling-less permits a very even soft pool of light into in museum. the vertical surfaces have very low light levels to dramatize the displays. the sculptures are the emphasized. In Figure 5. a narrow spot punches the background and floods provide the ambient light. In addition to the glass ceiling-less system. In Display 1. In return. the light levels fluctuate because the daylight is the primary source for highlighting the art. the background comes alive for the viewer to interact with the scene within the display. In Gallery 1 (figure 3). The higher footcandles are directly related to eastern and western glass curtain walls that allow the daylight to pour into the space. the space itself invites visitors to engage with the artwork. eliminating the need for artificial illumination much of the time" (Nasher.

In contrast with Display 1. the Display 2 has layered vertical surfaces with the foreground is emphasized with six footcandles compared to the background of two footcandles. 2009) Figure 5 21
 
 .
 gradual differences in light levels forces eye movement throughout the art. the viewer is focused on the details in the foreground and this does not allow the eye to observe the entire artwork. Visually. Figure 4 (Hunt.

the light levels are very low throughout the museum. which intrigues the patron to interact with art and artist’s intent. In the Nasher Sculpture Center. each label preserves particular elements for the art to relate to viewers in timeless place The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum The Bob Bullock Texas History Museum is a museum that explains the story of Texas. The paper guide also promotes variety of options of how the viewer wants to reflect. 2009) In conclusion. intimate tone. The viewer is given an information guide. The written description leads the viewers to each piece throughout the garden. Décor explains each exhibit while the lighting emphasizes facets 22
 
 . connect and experience art. The garden is uniquely designed for interaction of nature and art. Each artist’s inspiration. historical background and personal quote are elements that excite the patron about the work and enrich the experience. the Nasher Sculpture Center is a dynamic gallery space in the heart of Dallas with a subdued Zen architecture and sculpture garden.
 (Hunt. Verner Johnson and Associates designed an interactive experiential museum that tells of the story of Texas narrative form. The museum immediately sets a dramatic. With three floors. E.

the décor and lighting depicts each scene. which directly impacts visitors and indirectly forces the viewers to experience the history. Wandering through the exhibits. comforting feeling as the view was at a typical. natural tones of maroons. while the next exhibit is ten to fifteen footcandles. Layering of light with lumanaire types is the overall striking effect is a fusion of track spots. The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum targets all ages to have a unique experience through Texas history. "Nation becomes a State" is an exhibit that represents a steamboat. The "Building the Lone Star Identity" was a walk-through exhibit with soft dimmed light to feel confined and in a controlled prison environment. down light cans and fiber optics for viewers to be drawn into the exhibit. The layering of light is contrasting with highlights and spots on elements of the steamboat. early-Texas home. The color palette is simple. "Building the Lone Star identity" is the theme for the second floor. 23
 
 . the lighting provides a path for docents to experience each area and psychologically make a connection throughout the first floor. The paint was eggshell with suede or linen backgrounds in the displays to the artifacts to be emphasized.
 within the exhibit. Several lighting techniques provide dimension to these exhibits. dark blues and browns. This floor is more interactive and experiential by walking through exhibits. greens. The lighting design creates a scary and mysterious unknown feeling. The varying light levels create movement throughout the first floor. One area is thirty to forty footcandles. The cabin and teepee area had completely different color and light levels to illustrate the cozy. The first floor depicts the land before Texas as a state. Therefore.


 The “Centennial Theater” represents 1930’s old theater. The light adaptation is a safety concern. the third floor is "Creating Opportunity. 2009) Finally. which is the only light in the space.” These exhibits explore the different types of commerce and how cities flourished in Texas and the United States. The "Oil Tank Theater" presents how the oil industry changed Texas. Within the décor. several televisions play a movie. Once the eyes adjusted to the light level difference. Figure 6 (Hunt. The contrast of zero to thirty footcandles creates the experience as if a visitor was in a theater watching history unfold. which 24
 
 . The theater had very low levels of light with punches of light on the signage and gas pumps to incorporate theme of history of Texas oil. the uplight columns are washed. Each area has special lighting requirement due to the variety of artifacts and displays. The variety of historical areas varies from a NASA control panel to a ranching scene to oil tanks to an airplane on the third floor. the focus was on the historical information. In Figure 6.

The lighting did not have glare or dramatic shadows. In Figure 7.
 completes the experience of understanding Texas Oil. Figure 7 25
 
 . flat surfaces with narrow spots emphasizing photographs and information. The lighting is effective because guests have to focus on the story of oil.” the lighting is consistent and there are higher light levels of forty to fifty footcandles. In "Texas and Nation. information plaques have the highest footcandles with downlights highlighting the information for guests to read. Another area of the third floor is “Land of Opportunity” that displays of history of immigrants and different cultural influences in Texas. The information at eye level is also higher light levels. The lighting design is the critical component to this display because it directs the eye to follow the main concept of the display. Safety is a significant factor in the lighting of the space. this display is made of vertical. In this display. The displays and artifacts were much larger in scale compared to the other areas of the museum. The different light levels and layering of light give the display a hierarchy of importance of the information.

The lighting design and color palette creates movement through the exhibits in the San Antonio Museum of Art. Lighting plays a critical part of the Greek and Roman sculpture room. A dramatic sculpture in front of a deep red wall piques interests of the guests and draws them to go through the Egyptian area to experience more. the area is intriguing and inviting for viewers. In contrast. The Pre-Colombian exhibit is similar to the calming feeling due to glass curtain walls emitting high light levels. The areas are divided by cultures and civilizations of the world. sunlight contributes to the feeling and mood of the area. Compared to the Pre-Colombian area. Some exhibits feature very low levels of light for a dramatic effect inside the displays. The lighting design was tailored to each area. 2009) The San Antonio Museum of Art The San Antonio Museum of Art converted the Lone Star Brewery to house a variety of artworks from all cultures from ancient to present periods. Inside the display cases. Even though the light levels are high with daylight.000 square feet with four levels. the Roman and Greek sculpture 26
 
 . simple barrel vault corridor connects the Egyptian area to the Greek and Roman sculpture room. Clerestory windows provide some daylight. In the entry. a long. The San Antonio Museum of Art is over 55. the artifacts appear to come alive. The overall aesthetic of the museum was to create a unique experience combining industrial brewery with cultural and historical artifacts.
 (Hunt. The unique collection contains Pre-Columbian to Egyptian to Asian to European artifacts. Each different civilization is represented by a distinctive color with historical timelines and information.

There are also many interactive vignettes. which enable the guests to relate to Asian cultures. Once the eyes adjust to the low levels. the Chinese and Japanese areas are centralized by the effect of light and the Near Eastern Oceanic room is connected by color and curvilinear elements. The displays are varying heights and proportions to have visual stimulation. Japanese and South Asian areas. lighting design is the single element that directly impacts the experience of the exhibit. variety of displays and contrasting lighting. the display cases and exhibit vignettes come alive with the punches of light in the Chinese. The light levels are very low. The eye focuses on the details of the artifacts more than the room.thirty foot ceiling. The third floor has the curvilinear display elements and combination of daylight and artificial illumination. Several exhibits have curved platforms to emulate how the civilizations were connected to the water. The use of neutral colors in the decor contributes to the impressive glow of the sculptures within the room. proportions and heights within the room. dramatic lighting with narrow spots accenting the sculptures. These tones contribute to the mysterious and intriguing interaction between the displays. In the second floor. The overall effect is successful between the floor layout. The lighting is 27
 
 . Glare is a negative aspect of this room due to the shiny surface on the flooring with high concentrations of spots and down lights beaming down from approximately twenty.
 area has soft. The décor and wood finishes are dark tones. The lighting also creates a soothing mood with curiosity to wind through different areas. Near Eastern Oceanic area plays with form. Compared to the second floor. The lighting design is simple with high lights inside on the artifacts.

The museum is lively with artifacts and how the items are displayed. The architecture automatically draws the patron into space and creates a desire to know more about what the museum may contain. values and traditions by displaying and interpreting art works from all cultures and periods" (SAMA. but the entire contemporary art community. Each facet of the museum demonstrates the connection of the public with modern art. The mission of the museum is to “collecting. A long corridor separates the museum for public and private areas. presenting.000 square foot gallery space with modular design that connects a place for the fusion of lives with art. 2009). Tadao Ando created a 53. interpreting International development in post World War II art in media and creating a welcoming environment for public appreciation.
 critical for the Near Eastern Oceanic.000 works. but the color and curvilinear form set the tone of the area. The water feature cannot be viewed from the exterior of the building. The architecture and lighting direct the guests to the 28
 
 .” The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth stands strongly behind its mission. The museum’s permanent collection contains 3. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth is a new icon not only for the city of Forth Worth. The San Antonio Museum of Art is "dedicated solely to furthering its mission to promote a deeper understanding of human cultures. a water feature surprises each guest. Once inside the main lobby. The lighting design creates each exhibit's identity and distinguishes the different area with color and light levels.

wood. It also aids finding your way through the museum. steel and glass. From the main museum entrance. The right side contains the offices and support staff for the operations for the museum. The other architectural materials. and café. The architectural elements contribute to the experience of the museum. The second floor has a special exhibition. there is a main corridor that connects each smaller space. main galleries. The signs and guest services are effortlessly visible for visitors. enhance the warmth and complement interaction with the art. The space creates a feeling or sense of peaceful journey and flow. there is gift shop. In the public area. In addition to the water.
 public areas. The front desk is strategically placed in the middle of the main corridor for easy access. The main corridor is similar on both floors. The surprise element is revealed that only surrounds exterior of the gallery areas of the museum. The water can only viewed through the large glass curtain wall from the intimate spaces created by the architecture. The interior architecture divides into intimates smaller spaces for unique pieces to have personal reflection with the art. and rich materials enhance the Zen feeling of the space. The first floor is mainly reserved for the permanent collection. The water feature. The museum has two floors. The museum layout is a simplified modular design where each room flows into the next space. the simple white gallery walls give contrast to the architecture and art without dominating the space. Other fascinating design aspects of the museum are the particular large lofty rooms that are double height volumes with 29
 
 . granite. The smaller spaces are darker to create a more intimate experience. natural light. concrete. The left side of the museum is the public area.

Layering natural and artificial light emphasizes the volume of the space and dramatizes the artwork. The architectural design and diverse art collection create an environment for art appreciation to be in everyday life. These spaces can be viewed from both the first and second floors. The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth is exclusive. The spaces also give 3D art various perspectives to observe the art. unique experience to interact with a variety of media. Overall.
 daylight pouring into the space. The double height volumes promote the dialog of people and art. customer service. The architectural design enhances the interaction with each art piece. the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth brings a new experience to the concept of art museums and interaction with people. The creative division of gallery spaces leads the patrons to have personal reflection with particular favorite masterpieces. gallery space and patron amenities contribute distinctive successful approach to display art in a concrete modular building. The architecture. 30
 
 .

Entry The entry of the museum is the “wow” space that invites guests to experience the museum.
 LIGHTING DESIGN: CEDAR HILL MUSEUM OF HISTORY Concept The lighting design concept of the Cedar Hill Museum of History is like a geode. lowered ceiling with compact fluorescent downlights emits an even pool of light in figure 9. Tornado in Penn House. The designed space explains where a community meets heritage and nature. Each layer of light symbolizes a layer in the geode. The combination of metal halide. The unique. fiber optics. A geode is a type of rock with a rough exterior that gives no indication of the beauty held within its core. Farming and Ranching. Oral History. uplight. Once a guest enters the museum. Commerce. The custom glass geode inspired topography sculpture is highlighted with metal halide PAR 20 floods and punched 31
 
 . Each rock is unique in composition and cannot be truly discovered until cracked open. floods. downlight. spots. direct. the geodeinspired lighting design is revealed. Television Towers. Railroad Depot. compact fluorescents.000-square-foot museum is a U-shaped building with a centralized courtyard within the museum. This 3. The indirect. and Temporary exhibit (figure 4). track systems and pendants are all luminaries that contribute to the layering effect of light in the museum. Gobo projectors. and linear fluorescents produce the optimal quality of light and illuminate the creative designed exhibits: Natural History.

Behind the reception desk. On the same track system. The mural is washed by metal halide PAR 20 Floods on a track system (see figure 10). metal halide PAR 20 spots direct the guests to particular points of interest in this exhibit.
 with metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots lights. Natural History The Natural History exhibit is a photographic mural of Cedar Hill landscapes. The niches are illuminated by fiber optics with five to seven footcandles to accentuate the detail of the artifacts of the natural history. niches display artifacts and historical information of the Cedar Hill natural history. the Cedar Hill Museum of History’s logo is back light with downlights to welcome the guests to enter the museum. 32
 
 . Within the mural.

33
 
 . This exhibit depicts the feeling of being in a tornado in the Penn family’s home.
 Tornado in Penn House The Penn family is a prominent family in Cedar Hill. The GOBO projector creates the lighting and series of color changes through a tornado. Cedar Hill was hit by two tornados at the same time that destroyed a large part of the architectural history of the town. There are flat LCD panels in each window illustrating the effects of a tornado as a person would see from a window. The interior has compact fluorescent downlights to allow visitors to enter the house easily. The exterior of the house is highlighted with metal halide PAR 20 floods (see figure 11). In 1856.

guests are surprised with a lowered railroad track ceiling and a Railroad depot in the center of exhibit. Payne’s general store. Punches of metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots are used on the information plaques as well.
 Railroad Depot and Commerce After experiencing the 1956 tornado. Straus Hotel and Mr. The north wall is a glass curtain to emit natural light into the space. The indirect portion of light illuminates a gravel ceiling with direct light emitting on the entire area. The use of daylight adds a calming component to the experience. Commerce aligns the walls with 2-D cutouts with murals of the Cedar Hill Fire Station. The metal halide PAR 20 narrow spots highlight the 2-D cutouts with layering metal halide PAR 20 floods on the murals in figure 12. 34
 
 . The railroad ties are direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendants that are used as a feature through this exhibit to help visitors find their way. The highest light levels measure.

A track system of metal halide PAR 20 floods washes the murals (see figure 13). A GOBO projector is used in the ceiling to create the lighting effects. The display cases have linear fluorescents with special angular lens to distribute the light in the case for viewing and no glare.
 Farming and Ranching The Farming and Ranching exhibit focuses on the “full day in Cedar Hill. Compact fluorescent downlights provide light for evening in the space. The ceiling has several layers to represent clouds that light effect change to emulate weather and time of day changes. 35
 
 .” The east and south wall have photographic murals of a ranching and farming scene. The west wall is a glass curtain that allows daylight to pour into the space.


 Television Towers History Cedar Hill is the highest point from the Red River to Houston. This west wall illustrates a timeline with mural photographs to the history of the towers. 36
 
 . television towers have become an icon of the landscape of Cedar Hill. Texas. Similar to the farming and ranching exhibit. Over time. the metal halide PAR 20 floods emphasize the information on the wall in figure 13.

In general. PAR 20 narrow spots. The ceilings are 12 feet with cove lighting. In figure 14. and downlights are luminaries for the track system. The lighting is even pool of indirect light for guests to research family history. Temporary Exhibit Area The temporary exhibit area is a flexible space for different traveling exhibits. the walls are washed. The tracking system is three feet off the walls with different light sources. learn more about Cedar Hill History. The space is functional with tables and a computer with which to conduct research. The light levels can be adjusted for different guests and uses of the space. 37
 
 . or listen to testimonials of oral history. Metal halide PAR 20 floods.
 Oral History The Oral History is a nook space within the natural history area (see figure 10).

texture. the lighting design has several considerations that affect the lighting and spatial concepts. color temperature. form.500 Kelvin. The lighting maintenance is convenient because a limited number of lamp types are selected for the museum and location of luminaries are away from the exhibits. Each of exhibit area uses layers of light to attract the guests to read and learn from each historical time period. layered light. The specified lamps have high color render index and 3. Color rendered index. and maintenance are all factors that contribute to the whole. 38
 
 . viewing angles. These considerations allow the lighting design to fuse lighting elements with an architectural designed space to create an effective and functional design for humans to enjoy the experiential interaction.
 Lighting Design Considerations In the Cedar Hill Museum of History.

2007) 39
 
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 FIGURES Figure 1 (DiChara. 690.


 Figure 2 40
 
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690. 2007) Figure 3 41
 
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2007) 42
 
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 Figure 4 (Hunt. 2009) 43
 
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 Figure 8 (Hunt. 2009) 44
 
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 Figure 9 (Hunt.

2009) 46
 
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 Figure 10 (Hunt.

2009) 47
 
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 Figure 11 (Hunt.

2009) 48
 
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 Figure 12 (Hunt.

2009) 49
 
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 Figure 13 (Hunt.

2009) 50
 
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 Figure 14 (Hunt.

discharge lamp which passes a high pressure electron arc stream through a gas vapor. Fluorescent lamp. Lux. e.Color Rendering Index is degree of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the light source as compared with a color of those same objects undergo when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature (RP-30-96. 390. small point sources. (Egan.Light-Emitting Diodes – low-power. 392.Correlated Color Temperature is light source will determine whether the display takes on a "cool" or "warm" appearance.
 DEFINITIONS CRI. Higher Kelvin is a more cool appearance.unit of luminous intensity equal to 1 candlepower. 393. HID. The light can be objectively measured when reflected from or transmitted through an object. The unit of measure is expressed in footcandles? I don’t know what you meant by produces footcandles. they are used in traffic signals. Foot Candle (fc) – quantity of light on 1 foot squared of surface area 1 foot away from light source of 1 cd (Egan.390. metal halide. (Egan. 2002). Incandescent lamp.harsh. or red. 2002). (Egan. 394. 2002). 51
 
 . commercial advertising signage and exit signs (Egan. 1996). 2002). 391. expressed in Kelvin. CCT.009fc).lamp in which light is produced by heating filament to incandescence (i. 2002). 392. 1996). Luminance. 84. 2002). Examples are mercury. Fluorescent phosphor coating on inside of bulb transforms ultra-violet energy into visible light (Egan. LED. Glare.is the luminous intensity of a surface or object. Light from the wrong place at greater brightness than that to which eyes are adapted.High Intensity Discharge lamp. Typically amber.. point of emitting light) by means of an electric current (Egan. and high-pressure sodium lamps (Egan. 84. Candelas (cd). 394.discharge lam which emits electron arc stream from cathodes at ends. orange . lower Kelvin temperature corresponds to a warmer appearance of the light source (RP-30-96. 2002). uncomfortably bright light source or reflection that interferes with visual perception. 2002).metric unit of quantity of light on 1 m squared of surface area 1 m away from light source of 1 cd( 1lx equal to 0.

Luminaire – complete lighting unit consisting of lamp or lamps together with parts to position and protect lamp. 55. multiply by 0. However. To convert lux to foot candles.a device for changing. Cut off-has and is being used to describe luminaries that have no direct up light (no light emitted above horizontal). 2002).quantity of light (fc or lx) which reaches a surface. Fill light. and connect lamp to a power supply. 1996).supplementary illumination to reduce shadow or contrast range. 84. 83).
 Illuminance ( E). Also referred to as a fixture (RP-30-96. 83. Spill Light falls outside of the area intended to be lighted (RP-30-96. in addition to that limitation. 1996). 52
 
 .1996). the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) definition also requires luminaries to comply with the glare requirement limiting intensity of light from the luminaire in the region between 80° and 90°. 84. provided on the work-plane or on an object. the magnitude or spectral composition of the flux incident upon it (RP-30-96. Diffused lighting. 1996). (RP-3096. that is not predominantly incident from any particular direction (RP-30-96. direct light . by transmission or reflection.lighting.09 (Egan. 392. Filter.

Florentine. K. University of Texas.org. (2004). From Building and Garden: Building detail www. March 4. M. Falzano. University of Texas. www. (2009). 2009). K. M. Museums and the Green World. Rebecca. M. 47-49 Hunt. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (Site Visit April 3. Where lights Meets Landscape. 2009 Drawings. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. (Eds) (2007). al.02. New York: IESNA.02.com De Chiara. (1989). 2009. LD+A Museum on Display. (1996) Museum and Art Gallery Lighting: A Recommendation Practice RP-30-96. Elizabeth. & Benya. Volume 39/No.D. F. Austin. & Crosbie.nashersculpturecenter. et. (Masters dissertation. J. V. Egan. Roslyn. Lighting Design Basics. Liapi. 2009. Austin. Liapi. LD+A Museum on Display. February). LD+A Museum on Display. Art Museums. 2009. 2009. (Personal Interview. Architectural Lighting. Karlen. Natural light in Museums. University of Texas. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons. (Doctors of Philosophy dissertation. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.
 REFERENCES Bob Bullock Texas State Museum History Museum. (Site Visit March 4. Lindgren. (2009. 2008). Bob Bullock Texas State Museum History Museum. 1994). Nasher Sculpture Center. Lowe. (February). p. 27-31. Florentine.J. 53
 
 . 36-41. Retrieved January 28. an experience in Light: the Role of light in the Experience of the Art Museum. 1989). p. J. (2002).02.storyof texas. Diorama Drama. & OIgyay. Frank. Time-Savor Standards for Building Types. W. Volume 39/No. 2009). (1994). (February). Retrieved March 1. p. Mark. University of Texas. Volume 39/No.

Daylight from All Directions.org Tarricone. 33-35. 2009. February). Illuminating Alternatives: Research In Museum Lighting www. (Site Visit February 15. Lighting for Museums and Art Galleries. (2009). 2009). (Site Visit March 3. (2009) Retrieved February 19. LD+A Museum on Display. CIBSE Lighting Guide LG8: London.getty. (2009. 2009. J. San Antonio Museum of Art.
 Nasher Sculpture Center. 36-41.02. p. San Antonio Museum of Art. 2009). Paul. Curb Side. Volume 39/No. Retrieved February 15.org The Getty. Unknown. Volume 39/No. From Museum Information: History of SAMA www. (Ed) (1994). p. 54
 
 .02. Wilson.samuseum. LD+A Museum on Display. February). (2009.