Most Commons

MOST COMMON COM MON IN PATHOLOGy ATHOLOGy 1. 2. 3. 4. . '. ). *. +. 1. 11. 12. 13. 14. 1. 1'. 1). 1*. 1+. 2. 21. 22. 23. 24. 2. 2'. 2). 2*. 2+. 3. 31. 32. 33. 34. 3. 3'. 3). 3*. 3+. 4. 41. GIT 1-3 MC patho pathology logy of the the esophag esophagus us = dysphagi dysphagia a MC site site of atresia/agenesis atresia/agenesis of the esophagus = at/near at/near tracheal tracheal bifurca bifurcation tion MC site site of ectopic ectopic tissue tissue rests rests = upper upper third third of the the esophagu esophagus s MC time time for stul stula a formati formation on = embryon embryonic ic develop development ment MC type type of stula stula = h!type " upper segment# blind$ lo%er segment# segment# sture sture in bet%een& MC site of esoph esophageal ageal %ebs %ebs and rings rings = upper/p upper/pro ro(ima (imall esophagu esophagus s MC type of achal achalasia asia = primar primary y achala achalasia sia MC anatomic pattern of hiatal hernia = a(ial/sliding a(ial/sliding hernia/pulsion hernia/pulsion type ,ingle most important important risris- factor for esophageal esophageal adenocarc adenocarcinoma inoma = arretts 0sophagus MC of esophageal varices varices = liver cirrhosis/alcoholic cirrhosis/alcoholic liver liver cirrhosis cirrhosis MC benign cancer of the the esophagus esophagus = leiomyoma MC type of cancer cancer in the esophagus esophagus = ,CC ,CC MC location of ,CC in the the esophagus esophagus = middle 1/3 Maority of adenocarcin adenocarcinomas omas arise from = arretts arretts Mucosa Mucosa Most important important heterotropic heterotropic rest = pancreatic pancreatic heterotopia heterotopia 2nd MCC of chronic gastritis = immunologic /autoimmune gastritis MCC of acute gastritis gastritis = immunologic/autoimmu immunologic/autoimmune ne gastritis MCC of chronic chronic gastritis = helicobacter helicobacter pylori pylori infection MC morphology morphology in autoimmune gastritis gastritis = inammatory inltrates of lymphocytes lymphocytes and plasma cells MC site of 56 = gastric antrum antrum and rst portion of of duodenum Complication Complication of 56 more commonly associated %ith %ith the duodenum a7ecting the posterior posterior %all = bleeding MC ulcer in shoc-$ shoc-$ sepsis$ severe severe trauma = stress ulcer ulcer MC site of adenoma adenoma of the stomach stomach = distal portion portion 2nd MC tumor %orld%ide = gastric carcinoma MC malignancy malignancy of the stomach stomach = gastric gastric carcinoma carcinoma MC used classication classication systems of gastric gastric malignancies malignancies = 8auren and and 9:; Most important pathogenesis pathogenesis in gastric malignancies malignancies = environmental environmental MC form of of gastric lymphoma lymphoma = sporadic sporadic MC site for e(tranodal e(tranodal lymphoma lymphoma = stomach stomach MC involved locations locations of :irschsprungs :irschsprungs disease = rectum and sigmoid sigmoid Most serious predisposing predisposing factor for uired < emergency in neonates = necroti?ing necroti?ing enterocolitis enterocolitis MC clinical presentation presentation of Malabsorption Malabsorption = chronic diarrhea diarrhea :allmar- of of malabsorption malabsorption = steatorrh steatorrhea ea MC a7ected segments in Celiac ,prue ,prue = duodenum and pro(imal pro(imal eunum :allmar- of 9hipples 9hipples 6isease = distended macrophages macrophages in lamina propria propria MC segment location of colonic colonic diverticulosis diverticulosis = left side of colon "particularly the sigmoid& sigmoid& MCC of intestinal intestinal obstruction obstruction = post!op adhesion adhesion MC type of cancer in large large intestine intestine = adenocarcinoma adenocarcinoma MC acute abdominal abdominal condition condition = acute acute appendicitis appendicitis 1. 2. 3. 4. . '. ). *. +. 1. 11. 12. 13. 14. GIT INFECTIONS MC source source of salmonella salmonella in the 5, = poultry and poultry poultry products products "some "some notes say [email protected]& MC sour source ce of salmonel salmonella la in in the the < = seafood seafood Ahe characteristic characteristic pathology pathology of ,almonella ,almonella is most most prominent prominent in = ileum$ appendi($ appendi($ and and colon Ariad in ,almonella ,almonella infection infection = radycardia$ radycardia$ remittent fever$ and leu-openia leu-openia MC site site of involv involvement ement in B Bmebi mebiasis asis = cecum cecum MC route route for for ibr ibrio io Chole Cholera ra = oral!fec oral!fecal al MC ! human human patho pathogen gen= = 0. 0. coli coli :5, "hemolytic "hemolytic uremic uremic syndrom syndrome& e& = hemolytic hemolytic anemia and and acute -idney failure rincip rincipal al cause cause of Aravelers ravelers 6iarrhe 6iarrhea a = 0A0C :ighest infectivity infectivity rate of all enteric ! bacteria bacteria = ,higella ,higella MC stool isolate in the 5, = Campylobacter Campylobacter MC associated %ith %ith food!borne food!borne gastroenteritis gastroenteritis = campylobacter campylobacter MC agents of bacterial bacterial enteritis in %estern and and northern 0urope 0urope = Dersinia Dersinia Most potent to(igenic to(igenic bacteria bacteria in e(istence = Clostridium Clostridium 1. 2. 3. 4. . '. ). *. +. 1. 11. 12. 13. 14. 1. 1'. 1). 1*. 1+. LIVER 1-3, CP ortal ortal Ariad = hepatic hepatic arter artery$ y$ portal portal vein$ vein$ and bile bile duct duct EBrchetypalF BrchetypalF Most specic specic necrosis necrosis of the liver liver = coagulative coagulative necrosis MC viral viral etiolog etiology y of cirr cirrhosi hosis s in the the < = :epatiti :epatitis s MC etiol etiology ogy of of cirrh cirrhosi osis s = alcoho alcoholis lism m Most important important characteristic characteristic of Cirrhosis Cirrhosis "caused by by the collageni?ation collageni?ation of ,pace of of 6isse& 6isse& = reorgani reorgani?ation ?ation of vascular architecture Ahe ultimate ultimate mechanism mechanism of deaths deaths in most cirrhotic cirrhotic patients patients = progress progressive ive liver failure MC type type of porta portall hyperten hypertension sion = intrah intrahepati epatic c Clinical Clinical land landmarmar- of porta portall hyperten hypertension sion = caput caput medusa medusa rimary disease entity/ manifestation manifestation of bile accumulation accumulation = aundice aundice and cholestasis cholestasis Most li-ely mechanism mechanism of hepatocyte inury inury in :ep B = cell!mediated immune mechanism mechanism ;nly :epatitis :epatitis irus irus that is is 6GB =  :allmar- of :C = persistent persistent infection infection and chronic chronic hepatitis MC chronic chronic blood!born blood!born infection infection = :C Maor route of transmission transmission for :C = inoculation and blood blood transfusion Most reliable reliable indicator of recent :6 e(posure e(posure = uent type of large regenerative nodule =HG: "focal nodular hyperplasia& 23. MC primary malignant tumor in the liver = hepatocellular carcinoma 24. MC primary hepatic tumor in children = hepatoblastoma 2. MC diagnosed genetic liver disease in infants and children = alpha1 antitrypsin 2'. :allmar- of 9ilsons disease = accumulation of to(ic levels of copper in the tissues and organs "brain$ liver$ eye& 2). MC presentation of 9ilsons disease = acute or chronic liver disease 2*. :allmar- of :emochromatosis = e(cessive accumulation of body iron mostly in liver and pancreas 2+. MCC of secondary hemochromatosis = hemolytic anemia associated %ith ine7ective erythropoiesis 3. MC benign lesion in the liver = cavernous hemangioma 31. Most characteristic feature of hepatic adenoma = portal triads are absent 32. 9orst among liver lesions = :CC 33. MC :CC histologic pattern = trabecular pattern BILIARY TRACT AND EXOCRINE PANCREAS 1. MC Congenital anomaly = hrygian cap "folded fundus& 2. MC gallbladder anomaly = cholelithiasis 3. MC type of stone = cholesterol 4. Composition of bile = cholesterol$ bile salts$ and lecithin . MC reason for emergency cholecystectomy/primary complication of gallstones = cholecystitis '. Most important morphology of biliary atresia = ductal proliferation at portal triad "hepatic artery$ portal vein$ biliary duct& ). MCC precursor to cholangitis = choledocholithiasis *. Most probable site of entry to the biliary tract for microorganisms = ,phincter of ;ddi +. MCC of pancreatitis = alcoholism "*I& 1. Most characteristic morphologic nding of acute pancreatitis = necrosis of fat by lipases 11. MC altered oncogene in pancreatic cancer = -!ras *FROM THE EVAL 1. MC benign tumor of the esophagus = leiomyoma a-a 
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MOST COMMON IN PATHOLOGy

GIT 1-3
1. MC pathology of the esophagus = dysphagia
2. MC site of atresia/agenesis of the esophagus = at/near tracheal bifurcation
3. MC site of ectopic tissue rests = upper third of the esophagus
4. MC time for fistula formation = embryonic development
5. MC type of fistula = h-type ( upper segment: blind, lower segment: fisture in between)
6. MC site of esophageal webs and rings = upper/proximal esophagus
7. MC type of achalasia = primary achalasia
8. MC anatomic pattern of hiatal hernia = axial/sliding hernia/pulsion type
9. Single most important risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma = Barrett’s Esophagus
10. MC of esophageal varices = liver cirrhosis/alcoholic liver cirrhosis
11. MC benign cancer of the esophagus = leiomyoma
12. MC type of cancer in the esophagus = SCC
13. MC location of SCC in the esophagus = middle 1/3
14. Majority of adenocarcinomas arise from = Barrett’s Mucosa
15. Most important heterotropic rest = pancreatic heterotopia
16. 2nd MCC of chronic gastritis = immunologic /autoimmune gastritis
17. MCC of acute gastritis = immunologic/autoimmune gastritis
18. MCC of chronic gastritis = helicobacter pylori infection
19. MC morphology in autoimmune gastritis = inflammatory infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells
20. MC site of PUD = gastric antrum and first portion of duodenum
21. Complication of PUD more commonly associated with the duodenum affecting the posterior wall = bleeding
22. MC ulcer in shock, sepsis, severe trauma = stress ulcer
23. MC site of adenoma of the stomach = distal portion
24. 2nd MC tumor worldwide = gastric carcinoma
25. MC malignancy of the stomach = gastric carcinoma
26. MC used classification systems of gastric malignancies = Lauren and WHO
27. Most important pathogenesis in gastric malignancies = environmental
28. MC form of gastric lymphoma = sporadic
29. MC site for extranodal lymphoma = stomach
30. MC involved locations of Hirschsprung’s disease = rectum and sigmoid
31. Most serious predisposing factor for Ischemic Bowel Disease = arterial thrombosis
32. MCC of lower GI bleeding = hemorrhoids
33. MC acquired GI emergency in neonates = necrotizing enterocolitis
34. MC clinical presentation of Malabsorption = chronic diarrhea
35. Hallmark of malabsorption = steatorrhea
36. MC affected segments in Celiac Sprue = duodenum and proximal jejunum
37. Hallmark of Whipple’s Disease = distended macrophages in lamina propria
38. MC segment location of colonic diverticulosis = left side of colon (particularly the sigmoid)
39. MCC of intestinal obstruction = post-op adhesion
40. MC type of cancer in large intestine = adenocarcinoma
41. MC acute abdominal condition = acute appendicitis

GIT INFECTIONS
1. MC source of salmonella in the US = poultry and poultry products (some notes say dairy?)
2. MC source of salmonella in the PI = seafood
3. The characteristic pathology of Salmonella is most prominent in = ileum, appendix, and colon
4. Triad in Salmonella infection = Bradycardia, remittent fever, and leukopenia
5. MC site of involvement in Amebiasis = cecum
6. MC route for Vibrio Cholera = oral-fecal
7. MC G- human pathogen= E. coli
8. HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome) = hemolytic anemia and acute kidney failure
9. Principal cause of Traveler’s Diarrhea = ETEC
10. Highest infectivity rate of all enteric G- bacteria = Shigella
11. MC stool isolate in the US = Campylobacter
12. MC associated with food-borne gastroenteritis = campylobacter
13. MC agents of bacterial enteritis in western and northern Europe = Yersinia
14. Most potent toxigenic bacteria in existence = Clostridium

LIVER 1-3, CP
1. Portal Triad = hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct
2. “Archetypal” Most specific necrosis of the liver = coagulative necrosis
3. MC viral etiology of cirrhosis in the PI = Hepatitis B
4. MC etiology of cirrhosis = alcoholism
5. Most important characteristic of Cirrhosis (caused by the collagenization of Space of Disse) = reorganization of
vascular architecture
6. The ultimate mechanism of deaths in most cirrhotic patients = progressive liver failure
7. MC type of portal hypertension = intrahepatic
8. Clinical landmark of portal hypertension = caput medusa
9. Primary disease entity/ manifestation of bile accumulation = jaundice and cholestasis
10. Most likely mechanism of hepatocyte injury in Hep A = cell-mediated immune mechanism
11. Only Hepatitis Virus that is DNA = B
12. Hallmark of HCV = persistent infection and chronic hepatitis
13. MC chronic blood-born infection = HCV
14. Major route of transmission for HCV = inoculation and blood transfusion
15. Most reliable indicator of recent HDV exposure = IgM anti-HDV
16. Hallmark of progressive liver disease = piecemeal necrosis
17. Single most important indicator of likelihood to progress to cirrhosis = etiology
18. MC symptom of chronic hepatitis = fatigue
19. Hallmark of irreversible liver damage = deposition of fibrous tissue

MC altered oncogene in pancreatic cancer = k-ras *FROM THE EVAL 1. MC benign lesion in the liver = cavernous hemangioma 31. portal vein. Worst among liver lesions = HCC 33. MCC of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia = hemolysis 3. Most likely caused by secondary effect of the underlying inflammation. eye) 27. Most frequently altered oncogene associated with pancreatic carcinoma = K-ras gene 11. MC manifestation of ocular chlamydial infection in sexually active young adults = inclusion conjuctivitis 6. MC form of Tertiary syphilis = late benign or gummatous syphilis 10. MC etiology of Invasive Carcinoma = HPV 16 . MC primary malignant tumor in the liver = hepatocellular carcinoma 24. Most important risk factor of carcinoma of the breast = gender (female) 13. MCC precursor to cholangitis = choledocholithiasis 8. Chlamydia virulence factors= 1. Important host defense vs. Hallmark of Acute of appendicitis = neutrophils in muscular propria 8. Most frequent type of large regenerative nodule =FNH (focal nodular hyperplasia) 23. MC site of carcinoid tumor = appendix 5. Fibrosis 3. pancreatic head cancer BREAST 1. MC primary hepatic tumor in children = hepatoblastoma 25. Contains LPS 3. Cystic change 2. Basic defect in gallstone formation = supersaturation of bile with cholesterol 9. Cowdry Type A inclusion usually in neonates born by vaginal delivery by women with active primary HSV general infection = HSV meningitis 2. 2 most important factors associated with pancreatitis = biliary tract disease and alcoholism 10. biliary structure. Binds sialic acid receptors 4.20. Cornerstone for diagnosis of chronic relapsing pancreatitis = serum amylase determination and serum lipase determination 12. MCC of secondary hemochromatosis = hemolytic anemia associated with ineffective erythropoiesis 30. biliary duct) 7. Hallmark of Wilson’s disease = accumulation of toxic levels of copper in the tissues and organs (brain. transformed hepatocytes containing at least 4 nuclei in the center of each cell 21. MC manifestation of Hemophilus Ducreyi in women = dysuria and dysparenunia 12. MC benign tumor of the esophagus = leiomyoma aka GIST 2. Most characteristic feature of neonatal hepatitis = presence of giant cells. Blue dome cysts associated with = cystic change 9. MCC of lower gastrointestinal bleeding = hemorrhoids 7. MC benign tumor of the female breast = fibroadenoma 11. 18) 3. liver. Major cause of conjugated post-hepatic jaundice = gallstone. MC type of stone = cholesterol 4. fibrosis. 16. MC anomaly = phimosis 2. Adenosis 8. MC presentation Primary syphilis = chancre 8. 70% of pathology are associated with Chlamydia = perihepatitis (Fitz-Hug-Curtis Syndrome) 7. MC non-skin malignancy in woman = carcinoma of the breast 12. Usual pattern of lesion in HPV in cervix = flat condyloma (types 6. 2 cell types that line normal breast ducts and lobules = myoepithelial and luminal 10. MC pattern of gene expression in invasive ducal carcinoma = Luminal A (40-50%) STD 1. Most important morphology of biliary atresia = ductal proliferation at portal triad (hepatic artery. bile salts. MC potential or active pathogen in FGT = Candidiasis (candida albicans) 13. MC gallbladder anomaly = cholelithiasis 3. chlamydia = IFN gamma 5. 3 principle morphologic changes in non-proliferative breast change = 1. MC type of carcinoma of the breast = adenocarcinoma (95%. MC presentation of Wilson’s disease = acute or chronic liver disease 28. in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) 14. Fibrocystic Change primarily affects = TDLU (terminal duct lobular unit) 7. STD that involves entire FGT = PID (pelvis inflammatory disease) MALE GENITAL SYSTEM 1. MC reason for emergency cholecystectomy/primary complication of gallstones = cholecystitis 6. MCC of intestinal obstruction = post-operative adhesions 6. Composition of bile = cholesterol. MC symptom in clinical presentation of breast disease = palpable mass 2. Hallmark lesion of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis = destructive cholangitis 22. MC (lifestyle) association with periodical mass = smoking 4. 11. Most characteristic feature of hepatic adenoma = portal triads are absent 32. MC time of occurrence for acute mastitis= 1st month of breast feeding 3. Key histologic feature of periductal mastitis = keratinizing squamous metaplasia 6. MCC of pancreatitis = alcoholism (80%) 10. 2 major risk factors for the development of breasts cancer = hormonal (sporadic) and genetic (hereditary) 15. MC Congenital anomaly = Phrygian cap (folded fundus) 2. Most probable site of entry to the biliary tract for microorganisms = Sphincter of Oddi 9. MC presentation Secondary syphilis = rash 9. MC diagnosed genetic liver disease in infants and children = alpha1 antitrypsin 26. Hallmark of Hemochromatosis = excessive accumulation of body iron mostly in liver and pancreas 29. and lecithin 5. MC HCC histologic pattern = trabecular pattern BILIARY TRACT AND EXOCRINE PANCREAS 1. and scarring = inverted nipple 5. MC location of Hemophilus Ducreyi in women = labia majora (kissing ulcers) 11. Cell wall lacks muramic acid 2. Most characteristic morphologic finding of acute pancreatitis = necrosis of fat by lipases 11. MC outcome in patients with acute Hepatitis B = complete recovery without residual dysfunction 4.

MCC of dysfunctional uterine bleeding = anovulatory cycle 7. MC gynecologic problem in women during the reproductive period = dysfunctional uterine bleeding 6. Most Important/MCC of congenital adrenal hyperplasia = 21 hydroxylase deficiency 23. 2nd MC GCT in adults = Mixed Germ Cell Tumor 10. MC presumptive precursor lesion of prostatic carcinoma = PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) 19. MC site of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer = peripheral zone . Microscopic Hallmark of BPH = nodularity 16. Biological Markers HCG = choriocarcinoma AFP = yolk sac tumor placental alkaline phosphate = dysgerminoma 12. MCC of hyperparathyroidism = parathyroid adenoma 25. MC etiologic agent of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (Primary acute adrenocortical insufficiency) = N. teratoma + embryonal carcinoma + seminoma 11. Ophthalmopathy. MC precursor lesion for testicular GCT = ITGCN (Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia) 4. Important hallmark of adenoma of the thyroid = capsule 15. MCC of goitrous hypothyroiditis in regions sufficient with iodine = Hashimoto's Thyroiditis 12. Most useful screening test for hyper/hypo-thyroidism = TSH 20. Best markers for predicting prognosis = grading and staging 21. MC GCT (50%) = seminoma (equivalent to dysgerminoma of the ovary) 5. MC histology of carcinoma (cervix) = non-keratinizing 5. Single most important diagnosis for acromegaly = failure to suppress GH production after oral glucose load 6. Majority of pituitary adenoma = benign 3. perineural invasion 18. Most frequent pituitary hormone deficiency = GH assay 10. MC form/type of prostatitis = chronic abacterial prostatitis 6. 2nd MC testicular GCT (15-35%) = embryonal carcinoma 6. MC type of cancer of the FGT by incidence worldwide = endometrial carcinoma 19. Greatest Risk Factor for VAIN (Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia) = history of cervical or vulvar cancer 3. MC site of hematogenous metastasis in follicular carcinoma= bone 19. Hallmark morphology of papillary carcinoma = orphan Annie nuclei 18. Only tropic hormone with an inhibitory effect = prolactin 2. MC route of germ cell tumor metastasis = lymphatics 5. MC genital organ involved by metastasis = ovary 16. First symptom to appear with hormonal insufficiency = gonadal failure 7. MC origin of choriocarcinoma = placenta 15. MC germ cell tumor of the testis = seminoma 4. MC histology of Type II endometrial carcinoma = serous 10. First laboratory abnormality = failure of GH level to rise initially in response to stimulation 9. MC morphology of carcinoma (cervix) = fungating 4. MCC of primary adrenal insufficiency = Addison's disease 11. 2nd MC malignant carcinoma of the thyroid = follicular carcinoma 17. MC neoplasm in women = leiomyoma 11. MC site of ectopic pregnancy = Fallopian tube (80% ampullary) 18. MC form of Testicular cancer in Males > 60yrs = Testicular Lymphoma (non-hodgkins) 13. MC site of endometriosis = ovaries 8. MC type of cancer of the FGT in the PI = cervical carcinoma ENDOCRINE 1-3 1. MC common form of prostatitis = chronic abacterial prostatitis 15. lymphatic and vascular invasion.Hallmarks of Malignancy = capsular invasion. MC common cancer in males = Prostatic Carcinoma 17.3. Most important cause of spontaneous abortion = fetal (lethal genes. Meningitis 24. MC malignant carcinoma of the thyroid = papillary carcinoma 16. Grave's Disease Triad = Dermopathy. Found in 50% of Yolk Sac Tumor cases = Schiller Duval bodies 8. MC site of hematogenous spread of prostatic carcinoma = bones 20. Prostatic Carcinoma . 2nd MC type pituitary adenoma = GH adenoma 5. Most Important predictor of the biological behavior of a testicular teratoma = age 9. MCC of scrotal swelling = hydrocele FEMALE GENITAL TRACT 1. MC segment of the FGT involved with TB = Fallopian tubes 13. MC patterns of Mixed Germ Cell Tumor = teratoma + embryonal carcinoma (teratocarcinoma). MC site of of Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and cancer = peripheral zone 14. Major cause of non-endemic goiter in children = Hashimoto's Thyroiditis 13. MC type pituitary adenoma = prolactinoma 4. MC type of Cushing’s syndrome = exogenous iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome (constant intake of exogenous steroids) 21. MC etiologic cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis = HPV 2. Hyperthyroidism 14. MC manifestation of MEN 1 = hyperparathyroidism FROM THE EVAL 1. chromosomal abnormalities (blighted ovum)) 17. Structure affected first by TB = epididymis 3. Second symptom to appear with hormonal insufficiency = hypothyroidism 8. MCC of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome = Pituitary Cushing’s/Cushing disease/Primary hypersecretion of ACTH 22. MC location of leiomyoma = intramural (within the myometrium) 12. MC type of Carcinoma (endometrial) = Type 1 9. MC Etiological agent of PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) = Chlamydia 2. MC type of mucinous tumor = mucinous cystadenoma 14. MC testicular tumor in infants and children up to 3 years of age but with very good prognosis = Yolk Sac Tumor 7.

MC site of metastases of choriocarcinoma = lungs 17. MCC of hyperparathyroidism = parathyroid adenoma 23. MC site of tubal pregnancy = ampullary 15. MC renal clearance test = creatinine clearance 4. MC used renal function test = urea 2. MC histologic type of Renal Cell CA = Clear cell carcinoma 11. Most commonly involved bones in Skeletal Syphilis = nose. MC type of osteopetrosis/marble bone disease/Albers-Shönberg disease in children = Autosomal Recessive Severe 4. skull. Hallmark Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): degeneration and disruption of visceral epithelial cells 4. 2nd MC bone sarcoma in children = Ewing's sarcoma 17. Pathognomonic hallmark of gout = tophi RENAL FUNCTION 1. tendons. MC site of skeletal involvement (hips then knees) in Tuberculous Osteomyelitis = The spine 9. MC site of TB of the female genital tract = Fallopian tube 10. MC type of congenital structure anomaly of the kidney = Horsehoe Kidney MUSCULOSKELETAL 1. X-ray hallmarks of RA = 1. Most routinely used routinely used method of urine preservation = refrigeration at 2*C to 8*C 2. Gold Standard renal clearance test = inulin URINALYSIS 1. and joint capsules 3. Osteogenic tumor that most often arises on or inside the skull of facial bones = osteoma 13. Most indicative routine test of renal disease = protein . MC presenting sign/symptom in patients with endometrial carcinoma = vaginal bleeding 14. Largest ovarian neoplasm encountered in clinical practice = mucinous tumor 18. MC site of metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma = bone 8. Most Prominent manifestation of bladder cancer = painless hematuria 9. MC site of Chondrosarcoma = pelvis 23. juxta-articular osteopenia with erosion with narrowing of joint space 2. 2nd MC group of bone sarcomas in children = Ewing's sarcoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) 25. Most useful single screening test for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism is = TSH 22. MC type of osteopetrosis/marble bone disease/Albers-Shönberg disease in adults= Autosomal Dominant Mild 5. MC functioning pituitary adenocarcinoma = prolactinoma 19. MC endogenous ACTH-dependent cause of Cushing's syndrome = ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma 20. Bilateral malignant ovarian neoplasm is most likely a = metastatic carcinoma 9. Will tell you what bone is involved and what specific area in the bone is involved = radiologic appearance (bone tumors) 11. Minimal Change Disease= MC cause of nephrotic syndrome in children 3. palate. Most serious form of amyloidosis = renal involvement 8. MC important causative factor of Urinary Bladder Carcinoma= cigarette smoking 7. and extremities ---- 10. Precancerous (perinvasive) and invasive lesions of the cervix most commonly arise in the = transformation zone 16. MC intraosseous cartilage tumor = Endochondroma 19. MC site of metastasis of renal cell CA = lung 12. Main causative agent of suppurative (bacterial) arthritis in older children and adults = staphylococcus 31. Aureus (80-90% of cases) 8. MC site of osteosarcoma = metaphysis of long bones (knee 60%) 15. MC renal calculi = calcium oxalate stone 10. MC group of bone sarcomas in children = osteosarcoma 26. Thanatophoric dwarfism = MC lethal form of dwarfism/also caused by FGFR3 mutation 3. MC site of primary lesion in cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei = appendix 13. MC primary benign neoplasm of the ovary = mature cystic teratoma 11. MCommonly received specimen because of ease of collection and convenience for the patient=random specimen 3. Achondroplasia= MC disease of the growth plate/major cause of dwarfism 2. Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction= MC cause of hydronephrosis in infants 6. MC primary malignant in 15-25yo: osteosarcoma 16. (In the PI) MC site of invasive carcinoma of FGT = cervix 12. Histologic Hallmark of Paget's Disease of the bone/Osteitis Deformans = mosaic pattern of lamellar bone 6. Rarest of the cartilage tumors = Chondromyxoid Fibroma 21. MC site of Chondroblastoma = knee (then ribs and pelvis) 20. MC cause of Primary Chronic Adrenocortical Insufficiency = autoimmune adrenalitis 21. Baker cyst in the posterior knee form 30. MC primary malignant tumor of the bone = osteosarcoma 14. Ideal screening specimen = mid-stream catch specimen 4.7. MC cutaneous lesion in RA = rheumatoid nodule 29. Gold standard (bone tumors) = microscopic appearance 12. 2nd MC malignant matrix producing tumor of bone = Chondrosarcoma 22. Most conventional Chondrosarcomas fall into (range of grade)= 1-2 (indolent) 24. Acute Renal Injury (AKI) = MC cause of ARF (Acute Renal Failure) 5. Most accurate renal function test = creatinine 3. Hallmark of Severe hyperparathyroidism = generalized osteitis fibrosis cystica (Von Recklinghausen disease of the bone) 7. MCC of Cushing's syndrome = pituitary adenoma secreting ACTH RENAL 1. MC benign tumor of the bone in children = Osteochondroma 18. Destruction of ligaments. MC type of joint disease = osteoarthritis 28. Major cause of Pyogenic Osteomyelitis = S. Membranous Glomerulopathy = MC cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults 2. MC form of skeletal malignancy = metastatic tumor 27.

MC presentation of Wilms tumor/nephroblastoma = large abdominal mass . MCC in urinary bladder carcinoma = cigarette smoking 10. MC history of a malignancy of adrenal gland = bump/bull in the abdomen (usually accompanied by fever and weight loss) 35. Most frequently seen cast (composed entirely of Tamm-Horsfall protein)= hyaline casts 13. MC site of neoplasms in children = hematopoietic system (ALL MC!). Single MC identifiable cause of prematurity = PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes) 6. Nervous tissue (CNS. Major cause of Rh incompatibility = D antigen 24. Most Hazardous period of life because off complications of child birth. Major feature of CMV= involvement of CNS 16.Most seriously affected organ in cystic fibrosis = lungs 27. MC type of stone in the urinary system = calcium oxalate stone 5. retina. Most indicative urine chemical test of renal disease = protein 11. 5-14 yo = injuries/accidents??? 3. MC primary renal tumor of childhood = Wilms tumor: nephroblastoma 38. MC cause of Erythroblastosis Fetalis = ABO incompatibility 25. Most serious complication of intracranial hemorrhage = depression of vital medullary centers 12. MC organism in early onset sepsis = group B streptococcus 20. Greatest source of false negative glucose = allowing urine to stand at room temperature for prolonged period (glucose undergoes glycolysis) 7. MC fetal viral infection = cytomegalovirus (2nd trimester) 15b. Major constituent of mucus = Tamm-Horsfall protein * FROM THE EVAL 1. MC site of hemangiomas = face and scalp 29. skin. SNS. MC cause of bacterial meningitis = group B streptococcus 21. Time of highest susceptibility to teratogenesis = between 3rd and 9th week AOG (peak sensitivity= 4th -5th week) 18. irregular cytoplasm and and prominent nuclei = squamous epithelial 9. Major cause of dwarfism = achondroplasia 12. Leading cause of death in 1-4. MC site of neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma = adrenal medulla 36. MC organ abnormality in cystic fibrosis = pancreas (85-90%). Largest cells in the urine sediment with abundant. MC intracranial hemorrhage due to hypertension = intracerebral (asso. Renal cell carcinoma most often metastasizes to the = lungs 7. Only elements found in the urinary sediment that are unique to the kidney = casts 12. MC organisms associated with funisitis = ureaplasma urealyticum. MC cause are defects in gametogenesis = Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) 15a. Most important risk factor in the development of renal cell carcinoma = cigarette smoking 6. MC cause of respiratory distress = RDS/Hyaline membrane disease 22. soft tissue. 26b. kidney 33. bone. MCC of nephrotic syndrome in adults = membranous glomerulosclerosis 2. intestinal obstruction. 90% of bladder malignancies are = urothelial rumors 9. breast.causes of malformation = majority are unknown 40-60% CNS 1. 2 MC organisms responsible for lung infection = staph and pseudomonas 28. MC tumor diagnosed in infants less than 1 year of age = neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma 34. MCC of chronic glomerulonephritis = rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) 4. 2nd MC cause of neonatal mortalities = prematurity 5. MC tumor of infancy = hemangioma 30. MC factor causing Growth retardation = mother/maternal condition 8. Charcot-Bouchard) . 5. Most common and most important cause of glucosuria with hyperglycemia= DM 8. gonorrhea and chlamydia 7. g. Most severely affected organs in galactosemia = liver. MCC of nephrotic syndrome in children = minimal change disease 3. Most vulnerable time for congenital malformations = 1st 3 months (5-8/9 weeks when organogenesis begins 13. Vaginalis. adrenal medulla). Most common bacterial shape = cocci or bacilli 11. MC site of teratomas = sacrococcygeal area 31. Most frequent chemical analysis performed in urine because of DM = glucose 6. Fundamental defect of RDS = deficiency of pulmonary surfactant 23. Most clinically significant of the epithelial cells = renal tubular cells 10. MCC of renal artery stenosis = atheromatous plaques 8. MC cause of neonatal mortalities = congenital anomalies 4. 2nd MC site of neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma = sympathetic chain 37. MC form of osteoporosis = senility 13. colon 32. MC form of skeletal malignancy = metastatic lesion CHILDHOOD AND INFANCY 1. if patient is premature = neonatal period (1st month of life) 2. MC underlying factor for deformation = uterine constraint 14. Perinatal infections transcervical: ascending = mostly bacterial transplacental: hematologic = mostly parasitic and viral 19. mycoplasma. trichimonas. eyes. Least likely cause of growth retardation = chromosomal abnormality 10. brain 26a. MC site of neoplasms in adults = lung. Most important factor regarding mechanisms of malformations = timing of insult 17. MC injuries = clavicular fracture > facial nerve injury > brachial plexus injury > intracranial injury > humeral fracture>lacerations 11. MC symptom of Wilms tumor/nephroblastoma = Hematuria (also with abdominal pain. prostate. and hypertension 39. Most important trimester when organogenesis happens = 1st 9. 2 MC types of cerebral edema = vasogenic (extracellular) and cytotoxic (intracellular) 2.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency = dry beri. MC affected sites of infection with Heroin = skin and subcutaneous. MC type of vascular malformation of the brain = arterio-venous malformation 2. MC type of demyelinating disease = Multiple Sclerosis 7. spinal cord degeneration 9. cardiac arrhythmias. Vitamin D deficiency = osteoid matrix formation problem *FROM THE EVAL 1. MCC of death in bulemia = fatal arrhythmia 3. MC preventable cause of human death = tobacco use 3. liver and lungs 7. Wernicke-Korsakoff 5. MC infection among heroin addicted persons and is acquired by sharing dirty needles = Viral hepatitis 9. hyperthermia (CA-S-H) 11. MC route of CNS infections = hematogenous 5. Vitamin C deficiency = mineralization problem 12. MC location of hypertensive hemorrhage = putamen 3. Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency = pellagra 7. wet beri beri.3. Most widely used industrial solvents and dry cleaning agents = aliphatic hydrocarbons 14. Vitamin B9 (folate) = megaloblastic anemia. Predominating cell in bacterial infections = PMN neutrophils 4. peripheral neuropathy 8. MCC of dementia in the elderly = Alzeimer’s 7. MC heat syndrome = heat exhaustion 8. 60-70% of plasma concentration = CSF glucose ENVIRONMENTAL 1. Major complication of atherosclerosis = MI 4. MCC of mortality in the first year life = congenital anomalies 9. Most frequent telltale sign of heroin addiction = cutaneous lesion 10. Major component of smog = ozone 12. Majority of primary barin neoplasm rise from = astrocytes 4. heart valves. MC complication of lumbar taps = headache 2. neural tube defects if during pregnancy 11. MC site of hypertensive hemorrhage = putamen 4. Hallmark of CO acute poisoning = cherry-red discoloration of skin and mucous membranes 13. Most severely affected site of Huntington’s Disease = caudate 8. MC site of tuberculoma = cerebellum 6. Majority of primary brain neoplasms in adults are located = cerebral hemisphere 5. Majority of primary brain neoplasms arise from this = astrocytes 11. Aureus 8. MC hyperthermic syndrome = heat exhaustion NUTRITIONAL 1. Predominating in viral infections/chronic nervous diseases/ tertiary syphilis = lymphocytes or mononulcears 5. Prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons = benzopyrene 15. 70% of neoplasms in adults = supratentorial 9. Vitamin B12 (cobalamine) deficiency = pernicious/megaloblastic anemia. Most vulnerable period for preventable teratogenic insult to occur = 4-5th week 10. Meningeal carcinomatosis usually associated with which types of cancer = breast and lung CSF 1. glossitis. Most widely used and abused agent throughout the world = alcohol 5. Highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder = anorexia nervosa 2. MCC cause of endocarditis = S. Vitamin C deficiency = scurvy 10. Most serious complication of abuse of amphetamines = seizures. dermatitis. MC source metastatic carcinoma to the brain in a female = breast 6. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) = Cheilosis. MC type of meningitis that causes an increase in PMN = bacterial 3. MCC exogenous cancer = tobacco use 2. MC malignancy in children = leukemia . 70% of neoplasms in children are = infratentorial 10. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency = photophobia 6. Rickets occur in children most often in what year(s) life = first year 4. MC CNS effects of cocaine = hyperpyrexia and seizure 6.