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ForTen 4000 (c) Technology preview by Gerry D'Anza Tensile Structures Form Finding Techniques The Concept of Form Finding in Architecture is a old topic: Used in conjunction with several construction technologies technologie s , today we consider  The form finding problem a solved issue Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview conce con cept pt de d esig sign n & analyt analytical ical models Many systems are available today for who wants to investigate the large topic of Tensile Structure design, I remember just fifteen years ago that form-finding tools where available only to big engineering firms, mainly in house developed, and it was was quite impossible for for a young architect or engineer get a basic knowledge of this technology. Today's scenario has changed and its quite easy to get a software tool able to find a relaxed shape that satisfies the main rule for tensile structures : negativ negative e Gaussian Gaussian geometry at each point point of the the surface to guarantee equilibrium under any applied load. The main theory on which these tools rely on are : FDM - Forc Force e Dens Density ity Metho Method d DR - Dyn Dynami amic c Rel Relaxa axatio tion n FEM - Non Linear FEA metho methods ds URS - Updat Update e refer reference ence strat strategy egy These systems have proven to be reliable by a huge number of structures realized in the past years Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Form-finding modules Linear FDM Module Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane or cable net or cable net URS Module URS Module Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Integration with FEA analysis Linear FDM Module Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane or cable net or cable net Supporting Structures Supporting Structures Steel,concrete,wood Steel,concrete,wood Final shape with membrane,cables,steel Final shape with membrane,cables,steel In equilibrium with desired prestress In equilibrium with desired prestress FEM Analysis FEM Analysis URS Module URS Module Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview  Available Modules and WIP modules ( work in progress ) Not available yet to end user  Linear FDM Module Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Non Linear FDM Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane or cable net or cable net Supporting Structures Supporting Structures Steel,concrete,wood Steel,concrete,wood Final shape with membrane,cables,steel Final shape with membrane,cables,steel In equilibrium with desired prestress In equilibrium with desired prestress FEM Analysis FEM Analysis Structural Analysis Structural Analysis for wind,snow etc for wind,snow etc URS Module URS Module Patterning Patterning Connection Connection Details Connection Details Details Design codes Design codes EC3 EC3 Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview FDM Form-Finder introduction Forten 4000  (c) Force Density module Force Density or FDM is a the most simple method and comes in two flavours : Linear and Non Linear General net equations of equilibrium k   X  = 0 ; ∑[ k  Y = 0 ; ∑[ k  F ij  L k  ij k  ij F   L k  ij  x  j − x i Px i ]= 0 ;  y  j − yi Py i ]= 0 ;  z  j − z i Pz i ]= 0 ; k   Z = 0 ; ∑[ k  F ij  L k  ij Forten 4000  (c) Force Density module With the non-linear FDM method we are able to set different properties : k  k  C ij = F ij Force Density Linearisation k   Lij With the non-linear method we can specify : k  F ij = Force of Element  k   Lij = Length of Element  k   Lu ij = Unstrained Length of Element  The method is well suited to find cable systems where specific requirements are needed Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module URS Form-Finder introduction Forten 4000 (c) URS module URS – Update reference strategy The Updated Reference Strategy (URS) for form finding of membrane structures has been developed by Prof. Kai-Uwe Bletzinger of the TU München (Germany) For a given topology of a membrane structure and given stress state in the structural elements (pre-tension in the membrane and cables), the corresponding equilibrium shape has to be determined. The URS represents a generalization of the well-known force density method. Due to its continuum-mechanical basis, the method is applicable to both cable and membrane elements without any restrictions: E.g. an arbitrary stress state can be specified for the membrane, which can be isotropic in order to generate real minimal surfaces or orthogonally anisotropic, which is very helpful for form finding of textile structures with warp and weft direction. It is even possible to consistently include pressure forces, which are acting always normal to the surface at every state of the procedure,in the form finding process of pneumatic structures such as air-inflated cushions. Forte 4000 (c) URS module URS Module Key Features : Surface Quad-Mesh & Tri-Mesh elements taken in account Warp & Weft direction set by user via U-V mapping control Cables controlled by pretension or Force Density value Truss elements controlled by stiffness Constant ,Linear & quadratic stress law specified over the surface Internal pressure for pneumatics Fast direct sparse matrix solver Visualization of final stress over the surface & reaction forces at fixed nodes Forte 4000 (c) URS module URS Module Key Features : Surface Quad-Mesh & Tri-Mesh elements taken in account Warp & Weft direction set by user via U-V mapping control Cables controlled by pretension or Force Density value Truss elements controlled by stiffness Constant ,Linear & quadratic stress law specified over the surface Internal pressure for pneumatics Fast direct sparse matrix solver Visualization of final stress over the surface & reaction forces at fixed nodes Forten 4000 (c) URS module Hypar  U-V Coordinates Blue=Warp Red= Weft Fibre orientation Is simply controlled by u-v mapping Forten 4000 (c) URS module Hypar  U-V Coordinates Blue=Warp Red= Weft Stress distribution based on fibre direction Forten 4000 (c) URS module Conical shape = setting up u-v coordinates for warp-weft fiber direction U-V mapping = warp-weft fibre Forten 4000 (c) URS module Norwegian expo Pavilion, Shanghai 2010  Architecture: HHA Norway Engineering: Sweco, Khing, studioLD Form finding detailing: studioLD Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane Size: 35 x 56m Height: 13m Size individual 4 point sail: 12 x12m Membrane surface area: 2600m² Membrane Material: Edge-belt: Structure: Gore Tenara Architectural fabric 4T20 Polyester  Gluelam timber  Forten 4000 Form-finding challenge (c) URS Module Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane 4 point sails mus t wor k as part of the entir e roof as well as indivi dually for later use: -The design idea of the pavilion is to use individual umbrellas made of individual 4-Point sails and timber trees set up as a group of 15 for the expo and individually after the expo. -Therefore the form has to work both in the continuous surface as well as the individual sails, here the eyelet pre-stress is chosen lower than main membrane and all edge cables have the same geometry with different pre-stress. The form must offer a mesh sui table for export into Finite-Element software: -Mesh must be harmonious to get good convergence and realistic stress plots -Shallow angles in corners must be avoided otherwise you get unrealistically high stresses, therefore mesh is made more dense in the eyelet corners before export. Forten 4000 Form-finding challenge (c) URS Module Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane 4 point sails mus t wor k as part of the entir e roof as well as indivi dually for later use: -The design idea of the pavilion is to use individual umbrellas made of individual 4-Point sails and timber trees set up as a group of 15 for the expo and individually after the expo. -Therefore the form has to work both in the continuous surface as well as the individual sails, here the eyelet pre-stress is chosen lower than main membrane and all edge cables have the same geometry with different pre-stress. The form must offer a mesh sui table for export into Finite-Element software: -Mesh must be harmonious to get good convergence and realistic stress plots -Shallow angles in corners must be avoided otherwise you get unrealistically high stresses, therefore mesh is made more dense in the eyelet corners before export. Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Bridigine college Shade to order  Kakkuri finland Membrane & steel g.danza,l.dibenedetto Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning Module & special features Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning a flower Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning a flower Forten 4000 (c) Patterning Module Forten 4000 (c) Patterning Module Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview IsCube steel detailing Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview
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ForTen 4000 (c

)
Technology preview

by Gerry D'Anza

Tensile Structures Form Finding Techniques

The Concept of Form Finding in Architecture is a old topic:
Used in conjunction with
several construction
technologies , today we
consider
The form finding problem a
solved issue

Forten 4000

(c)

Technology preview

concept design & analytical models
Many systems are available today for who wants to investigate the large topic of Tensile Structure design,
I remember just fifteen years ago that form-finding tools where available only to big engineering firms,
mainly in house developed, and it was quite impossible for a young architect or engineer get a basic
knowledge of this technology.
Today's scenario has changed and its quite easy to get a software tool able to find a relaxed shape
that satisfies the main rule for tensile structures : negative Gaussian geometry at each point of the
surface to guarantee equilibrium under any applied load.

The main theory on which these tools rely on are :
FDM - Force Density Method
DR - Dynamic Relaxation
FEM - Non Linear FEA methods
URS - Update reference strategy

These systems have proven to be reliable by a huge number of structures
realized in the past years

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Form-finding modules Linear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Non NonLinear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane ororcable net cable net URS URSModule Module .

concrete.concrete.cables.wood Final shape with membrane.steel In equilibrium with desired prestress In equilibrium with desired prestress FEM FEMAnalysis Analysis URS URSModule Module .wood Steel.steel Final shape with membrane.Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Integration with FEA analysis Linear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Non NonLinear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane ororcable net cable net Supporting SupportingStructures Structures Steel.cables.

wood Steel.Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Available Modules and WIP modules ( work in progress ) Not available yet to end user Linear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Non NonLinear LinearFDM FDMModule Module Pres -stressed membrane Pres-stressed membrane ororcable net cable net Supporting SupportingStructures Structures Steel.cables.steel Final shape with membrane.wood Final shape with membrane.snow etc URS URSModule Module Patterning Patterning Connection Connection Details Connection Details Details Design codes Design codes EC3 EC3 .concrete.concrete.steel In equilibrium with desired prestress In equilibrium with desired prestress FEM FEMAnalysis Analysis Structural Analysis Structural Analysis for wind.cables.snow etc for wind.

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview FDM Form-Finder introduction .

Forten 4000  (c) Force Density module Force Density or FDM is a the most simple method and comes in two flavours : Linear and Non Linear General net equations of equilibrium ∑ X = 0. z j − zi Pz i ]= 0 . y j − yi Py i ]= 0 . ∑[ k ∑[ k k F ij k ij k ij k ij L F L F ijk L k ij x j− x i Px i ]= 0 . . ∑ Z= 0. ∑[ k ∑ Y = 0.

Forten 4000  (c) Force Density module With the non-linear FDM method we are able to set different properties : k ij C = F L k ij k ij Force Density Linearisation With the non-linear method we can specify : k ij F = Force of Element k ij L = Length of Element Lu kij = Unstrained Length of Element The method is well suited to find cable systems where specific requirements are needed .

Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering .

Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering .

Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering .

Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module Example of FDM Non-Linear model GMG Motors Baku Group DT Design & Engineering .

Forten 4000 (c) Force Density module URS Form-Finder introduction .

the corresponding equilibrium shape has to be determined. which is very helpful for form finding of textile structures with warp and weft direction. . which are acting always normal to the surface at every state of the procedure. Due to its continuum-mechanical basis. an arbitrary stress state can be specified for the membrane.g. the method is applicable to both cable and membrane elements without any restrictions: E. which can be isotropic in order to generate real minimal surfaces or orthogonally anisotropic.Forten 4000 (c) URS module URS – Update reference strategy The Updated Reference Strategy (URS) for form finding of membrane structures has been developed by Prof. The URS represents a generalization of the well-known force density method. It is even possible to consistently include pressure forces.in the form finding process of pneumatic structures such as air-inflated cushions. Kai-Uwe Bletzinger of the TU München (Germany) For a given topology of a membrane structure and given stress state in the structural elements (pre-tension in the membrane and cables).

Forte 4000 (c) URS module URS Module Key Features : Surface Quad-Mesh & Tri-Mesh elements taken in account Warp & Weft direction set by user via U-V mapping control Cables controlled by pretension or Force Density value Truss elements controlled by stiffness Constant .Linear & quadratic stress law specified over the surface Internal pressure for pneumatics Fast direct sparse matrix solver Visualization of final stress over the surface & reaction forces at fixed nodes .

Forte 4000 (c) URS module URS Module Key Features : Surface Quad-Mesh & Tri-Mesh elements taken in account Warp & Weft direction set by user via U-V mapping control Cables controlled by pretension or Force Density value Truss elements controlled by stiffness Constant .Linear & quadratic stress law specified over the surface Internal pressure for pneumatics Fast direct sparse matrix solver Visualization of final stress over the surface & reaction forces at fixed nodes .

Forten 4000 (c) URS module Hypar U-V Coordinates Blue=Warp Red= Weft Fibre orientation Is simply controlled by u-v mapping .

Forten 4000 (c) URS module Hypar U-V Coordinates Blue=Warp Red= Weft Stress distribution based on fibre direction .

Forten 4000 (c) URS module Conical shape = setting up u-v coordinates for warp-weft fiber direction U-V mapping = warp-weft fibre Shape after 1 step .

Shanghai 2010 Architecture: HHA Norway Engineering: Sweco. Khing. studioLD Form finding detailing: studioLD Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane Size: 35 x 56m Height: 13m Size individual 4 point sail: 12 x12m Membrane surface area: 2600m² Membrane Material: Edge-belt: Structure: Gore Tenara Architectural fabric 4T20 Polyester Gluelam timber .Forten 4000 (c) URS module Norwegian expo Pavilion.

therefore mesh is made more dense in the eyelet corners before export. The form must offer a mesh suitable for export into Finite-Element software: -Mesh must be harmonious to get good convergence and realistic stress plots -Shallow angles in corners must be avoided otherwise you get unrealistically high stresses. here the eyelet pre-stress is chosen lower than main membrane and all edge cables have the same geometry with different pre-stress.Forten 4000 (c) URS Module Form-finding challenge Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane 4 point sails must work as part of the entire roof as well as individually for later use: -The design idea of the pavilion is to use individual umbrellas made of individual 4-Point sails and timber trees set up as a group of 15 for the expo and individually after the expo. -Therefore the form has to work both in the continuous surface as well as the individual sails. .

Forten 4000 (c) URS Module Form-finding challenge Modeled with URS from Rhino-Membrane 4 point sails must work as part of the entire roof as well as individually for later use: -The design idea of the pavilion is to use individual umbrellas made of individual 4-Point sails and timber trees set up as a group of 15 for the expo and individually after the expo. here the eyelet pre-stress is chosen lower than main membrane and all edge cables have the same geometry with different pre-stress. . therefore mesh is made more dense in the eyelet corners before export. -Therefore the form has to work both in the continuous surface as well as the individual sails. The form must offer a mesh suitable for export into Finite-Element software: -Mesh must be harmonious to get good convergence and realistic stress plots -Shallow angles in corners must be avoided otherwise you get unrealistically high stresses.

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Plan design of sambil barquisimeto .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Design by Baku Group Dt Architects .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Port of Bari : Cover for waiting area.

Design by Baku Group Dt Architects .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Port of Bari : Cover for waiting are.

Design by Baku Group Dt Architects .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Port of Bari : Cover for waiting are.

l.Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Bridigine college Shade to order Kakkuri finland Membrane & steel g.dibenedetto .danza.

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling. Analysis & Patterning overview .

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling. Analysis & Patterning overview .

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Forten 4000

(c)

Technology preview

Modeling, Analysis & Patterning overview

Forten 4000

(c)

Technology preview

Modeling, Analysis & Patterning overview

Forten 4000

(c)

Technology preview

Modeling, Analysis & Patterning overview

Analysis & Patterning overview .Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling.

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling. Analysis & Patterning overview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Modeling. Analysis & Patterning overview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning Module & special features .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning a flower .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Patterning a flower .

Forten 4000 Patterning a boat cover (c) Patterning Module .

Forten 4000 Patterning a boat cover (c) Patterning Module .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview IsCube steel detailing .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview .

Forten 4000 (c) Technology preview Thank You Gerry D'Anza .