Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair

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ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.

V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DESIGN PROJECT
COE 008

HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR

A Project Design proposal presented to the faculty of Engineering Department
In Partial Fulfillment for the requirements in COE 008 (Project Design)

PRESENTED BY:
Gonzales, Christan Mark
Bernardo, Edgardo Jr.
Talledo, Mark Ale
Raymundo, Alvin

SUBJECT INSTRUCTOR:
Prof. Buenafe Camaso
Adviser

November 8, 2015

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
PREFACE
Incidents happen everywhere, even though we make sure that safety is our main priority,
we don’t really know if it’ll occur or not. Some incidents cause major changes in one’s life, he or
she could be physically capable of doing normal things before a road accident happens but will
then be unable to do normal things afterwards such as walking normally. Due to this, it will be hard
for his or her to move from one location to another. Some might buy their personal mobility device
such as a wheelchair which will help them lessen the complexity of moving, but in some cases,
there were some disabled individuals who are not able to attain full functionality of their hands due
to another incident. In such case, the disabled individual will have a hard time using such
wheelchair, either the manually hand driven traditional wheelchair or the conventional joystick
controlled wheelchair. It is due to this case that we have come up with this dissertation which
includes the development wheelchair device which enables a user that could not harness full
functionality of his or her hand to gain full access of the controls of the personal mobility device.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEDICATION
We dedicate this dissertation to the physically disabled individuals who’ve served as the
inspiration for us researchers to come up with this project. We would also like to dedicate this
dissertation to the future researchers or students who may want to improve or use this research as
a reference for their own.
We also dedicate this dissertation to the wonderful people who have been the constant
source of knowledge and idea. To our instructor Ms. Buenafe Camaso who have been very
supportive to us during the creation of this dissertation by giving us ideas and encouraging us
when we have uncertain thoughts.
Most importantly, we would like to dedicate this dissertation to our Lord and Savior, Jesus
Christ. If not for his presence and guidance, we would not have been able to finish this research.

The hand gesture wheelchair has a maximum weight limit carry of 70 kgs. . to process the signals sent by the accelerometer in order to manipulate the wheelchair’s movement. The battery included in this wheelchair could supply power from 6 – 12 hours depending on the user’s discretion of the device’s usage. by doing this the tilt movement could be measured with respect to the earth. The proposed wheelchair system is not recommended to be used for long distance travels and/or on rocky paths and inclined surfaces. Soliven Avenue II. It is not recommended to be used for individuals with severe hand shakiness and/or mental disorder. The wheelchair’s movement is determined via accelerometer sensor which measures the amount of static acceleration due to gravity every time it is moved. Afterwards.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. V. The said wheelchair enables the user to control the movements of the prototype just by using a specific body part’s (in this research study’s case it would be the hand) movement wherein an accelerometer sensor is mounted. The data derived from the accelerometer sensor will be passed on to the Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board for data evaluation and processing. an open source computing platform based on simple input/output board and uses standard programming language. The Arduino Uno Microcontroller will also send a signal to the LCD Module in order for it to display the movement status of the wheelchair. The accelerometer sensor is connected on an Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board. the Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board will send a command on to the Motor Driver Circuit which will manipulate the motor’s movements based on the signal sent by the microcontroller. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ABSTRACT The researchers created a prototype project that enables a person with disability to use a wheelchair with ease. INC.

Buenafe Camaso. Prof. V. effort. for the encouragement especially when times get rough and almost seem unbearable. INC. the researchers wish to extent their full gratitude and appreciation. To their classmates and friends. for her full support. To God be all the glory! The researches also wanted to express their sincerest gratitude to the following people who accompanied them and nevertheless showed an unending support throughout the completion of this project: To their parents and other family members. . he who never fails to do amazing things to the group.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The people who continuously encourage us to achieve greater heights. V. and guidance as this dissertation’s adviser. for giving us full support on both moral and financial aspect. To all those who have helped directly and indirectly whose names were not mentioned. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project would never become successful without the aid and guidance of the Lord. Soliven Avenue II.

............................................................................................................................................................ 4 1..........2 Local Literature..............1 Foreign Literature .........3................................................................................ 3 1. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Table of Contents CHAPTER I PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND .............................. 3 1.............. 48 4................................................ 21 2............. 50 CHAPTER V PRESENTATION....................................................................... 8 2......2.........2................2 Theoretical Framework...... 44 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................6 Definition of Terms ..................................................1 General Problem .................................................................. 42 3............................................................................................................................................................. 4 1... 51 .....................................4 Significance of the Study .........................2 Limitations ................. 35 CHAPTER III CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ 37 3.........1 Method of Research ............... 8 2......1 Scopes ..................................................................2 Specific Objectives..........................................5...................................................................ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.....................................................................................................5.... V................................................................................................................................................................................ ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ........................................ 45 4........................ 47 4................................................................................2 Statement of the Problems .................. 3 1........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 1...... 26 2....... 37 3....... 33 2..............4 Local Studies ..........................................................................................................................................................................................5 Statistical Treatment of Data ...............3 Data Gathering Instrument ........................................... 46 4....................................................................................................... 40 3.... 6 1............2 Sources of Data..................................1 General Objective .............6 Ethical Considerations........................ INC................................................................................... 6 1.. 31 2................................................... Soliven Avenue II.................................................................. V.................................................................................. 1 1....................................................................................................3 Foreign Studies ......................................3 Project Work Breakdown Structure ........................................................................................1 Background of the Study ..............................2 Specific Problems ...................3......................4 Data Collection Procedure ...........................................................5 Synthesis of the Study.................................... 1 1...........4 Organizational Flow Chart .. 6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES........ 5 1..............................................................................................................5 Scopes and Limitations ........................... 49 4........................................................................................ 45 4...............1 Conceptual Framework .3 Objectives of the Study .........................................

................................................................................................................6 Experimentation (Testing) ..................................................6.1..................... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .........................6................. 70 5.............. 89 APPENDIX B USER’S MANUAL ..................................................................................................... 72 5.............. 86 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................ 104 APPENDIX F ORGANIZATIONAL FLOW CHART ..... 108 APPENDIX H DESIGN PROJECT PICTURES ..................................................4 Design Concept ........7 Survey Results ..................1..................................... V.........................................3 Recommendation ................................................................................................................................................................1 Components of the System ............................................................................................................ 64 5....................... 51 5.....3 Data Flow Chart ...................................1 Hardware Components ..........................................................5 Specification Table ....................................... 100 APPENDIX D DESIGN PROJECT COSTS ESTIMATION ........................................... 69 5......................ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION................................................................................................................................................................................. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5................ 70 5.............................. 79 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY...............................................................2 Individual Component’s Testing ..........................................1 Procedures of the Design and Fabrication of the System ........................................................ 120 .....................2 Conclusion ............................................ Soliven Avenue II...............................1 Summary ..................................................................................................... 62 5........................................... 85 6.... 51 5..... V................................................ 76 5.................................................................................................................................................. 107 APPENDIX G CURRICULUM VITAE ...................2 Circuit Diagram... INC............................................................ 103 APPENDIX E DESIGN PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT .................................................... 87 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE .......3 Integrated System Testing ... 91 APPENDIX C SOURCE CODES ..............................................................................................................................6............ 84 6......................... 84 6............................................................................................................................. 67 5.....................................................................................2 Software Components . 61 5........

the advancement of technology had also been attached to mobility devices. There are even systems based on voice recognition. These applications are quite popular among people with limited upper body functions. using joystick and much more. there have been a wide range of assistive and guidance systems available in wheelchair devices to make the user’s life less complicated. Most of the time.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. In recent times. the different objectives of the project. there are handles located at the back of a wheel chair that could be used by another person to help the user of the wheelchair for maneuvering and navigation. Although there were still traditional manually operated variants of such device. and the significance of the study. V. There are many assistive systems using visual aids like smart wheelchair systems. V. In recent times. Such variants are known as electric powered wheelchairs. The newer variants of these devices use batteries and motors for the pushing capability. Wheelchairs are used primarily by physically challenged individuals who could not walk or stand. INC. 1.1 Background of the Study A wheelchair is a device or apparatus. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER I PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter will discuss the study’s background. the statement of the different problems. the scope and limitation of the project. Although there were quite few various 1 . basically a chair that has several wheels attached to it. Soliven Avenue II. The developed systems are highly competitive in replacing the old traditional systems. there have been various control systems development that is specialized for people with various disorders and disabilities.

The overall aim of this project prototype is to restore the autonomy of the physically challenged individuals. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The proponents of this prototype project wishes to help these disabled individuals by providing a new means or way of controlling a wheeled chair or seat. V. Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING means of controls available for the current systems of automated wheelchairs. there are certain drawbacks in these systems as it cannot be used by people of higher disability because they require fine and accurate control which is sometimes not possible. 2 . this prototype project is conceptualized by the researchers to let the target users to control the wheelchair by just the use of his or her hand movements. INC. thus calling this prototype project the hand gesture controlled wheelchair. Thus. enabling them to independently use an electric powered or motorized wheelchair.

V.2 Statement of the Problems The researchers developed this design project in order to help the disabled individuals with their personal mobility.1 General Problem  The lack of self-reliance of a physically challenged individual when it comes to his or her personal mobility. Thus. shoulders. thus increasing the difficulty of moving the wheelchair for the user’s mobility. INC. Soliven Avenue II. wrists. the accumulated force on the fingers of these individuals are not sufficient.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. it will be difficult for a possible wheelchair user with no available finger (this may be due to an accident) to manipulate the joystick module connected into conventional wheelchairs.  In some rare cases.2. this study will provide a better or improved idea for the current system. The researchers started this study due to the fact that the current system was not that sufficient to supply the needs of many. elbow. V. This study will provide a solution for the complications found on the current implemented system that is available throughout the market.2. 3 .2 Specific Problems  Propelling a manual wheelchair might cause fatigue and pain on the user’s upper body parts (i.e. and hands). The complications or problems will be elaborated below.  For physically challenged individuals with weak grip. the conventional electronic wheelchair becomes unreliable because most of the time. 1. 1. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 1.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 1.  To provide a controller module which will enable a user with weak grip to control or manipulate the movement of the developed mobility device by moving the controller to a certain direction.  To enable a potential user with no finger tips to control the developed mobility device. Soliven Avenue II. this study also has its own objectives. The objectives of this study will be the known aid or solution for the elaborated problems or complications found on the current system. 1. The objectives of this study are the following: 1. V.1 General Objective  To develop a wheelchair that will increase the self-reliance of a physically challenged individual when it comes to his or her personal mobility. It could be said that this study will contain the aid or solution for such problems present in the current system. 4 . INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.2 Specific Objectives  To develop a mobility device that is easy to use and will decrease the possible fatigue and pain that the user might experience when using a manually propelled wheelchair. As like any other study.3. V. thus designing a wheelchair that is somehow automated.3.3 Objectives of the Study The researchers developed this design project idea for the betterment of the current implemented system throughout the market.

5 . thus if this happens. The proponents have come up with this project in order to help the persons with disability to be slightly independent when it comes to controlling their personal traveling or strolling companion.  The person with disability himself:  This is a project intended to help them become self-reliant. The findings of this study will benefit the following:  The friends and family of the person with disability:  The patient will become slightly independent or self-reliant. this project will give them the autonomy to feel or feel once more that they are somewhat independent.  The fellow researchers or students:  This project is a final year project. thus. the wheelchair. it only means that they will be the greatest beneficiaries of this project. it only means that they could read this study as part of their reference. it only means that the time his loved ones need to watch the patient will be lessened. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 1. The hand gesture will be used as the primary direction controller of the project prototype.4 Significance of the Study The project prototype hand gesture controlled wheelchair aims to develop an innovation on electronic wheelchair technology. Soliven Avenue II. V. that they are free in a way.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. if they’re interested to somewhat add an extra feature. they’ll be having more time to accomplish the task that is needed to be done. INC. they could be able to more easily innovate this project since they have a reference. Thus. V.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 1.  The controller uses the movements of a certain body part wherein the sensor is located for control or movement.  A specific movement of a hand could initiate one of five different states of movement. due to these motors.  The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is not advisable to be used by fully paralyzed individuals that could not move any part of his or her body. namely forward. but it could be used for personal. reverse. the wheelchair could carry an individual with bigger or heavier weight.  In order to ensure the safety of the user.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. the hand gesture controlled wheelchair also has a reclining back support. left turn. the researchers have chosen a low speed but high torque motor. it means that the movement speed will be slow.5 Scopes and Limitations 1. V.  For users who wanted to lay down. 1. V.5. but still. INC.2 Limitations  The design project prototype hand gesture controlled wheelchair could not be used as a means of transportation for long distances such as going from one town to another. for example the hand. and stop.5. right turn. outdoor and short distance transportations. but it could 6 . Soliven Avenue II.1 Scopes  The research covers up the creation of an automated wheelchair system that will benefit the disabled individuals.

The recommended weight limit was 50 . INC. the hand gesture controlled wheelchair’s speed could not be adjusted because the researchers prefer a low speed operation than an adjustable speed control operation to ensure the user’s safety.  Unlike other conventional electric wheelchairs. only as the wheelchair could still move smoothly at such load.  The proposed wheelchair system is not advisable to be used by people exceeding the weight limit of 70 kgs. Soliven Avenue II. because the wheelchair’s motor system might not be able to carry such load properly.  The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is not recommended to be used by persons with mental illnesses as it is too dangerous to be used by persons that are not mentally capable or fit.  The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is not recommended to be used by individuals with severe hand shakiness as it could trigger the sensor to calculate unwanted movement. 7 .60 kgs.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING be used by individuals who are physically incapable of standing up or walking as long as they can move one of their hands. V. thus possibly making the wheelchair impossible to move.  The proposed wheelchair system is not advisable to be used on inclined surfaces or paths and rocky terrains as the wheelchair might not be able to move properly.

coming from both foreign and local sources. and related studies. According to Hearing Loss Association of North Carolina. mental. vision.  Hearing aids can improve hearing ability in persons with hearing problems. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter will discuss the review of the related literature. generally the term assistive device is used for devices that help people overcome a handicap such as a mobility. and orthotic devices. prosthetic devices. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. scooters. these devices were created.1 Foreign Literature Assistive Devices Assistive devices are devices that helps an individual to do something that might not otherwise be able to do well or at all. According to the National Child Health and Human Development website. Soliven Avenue II. such as wheelchairs. walkers. coming from both foreign and local sources. 2. to enhance their mobility. V. INC. crutches. canes. 8 . and the definition of different unusual terms. these are some examples of assistive technologies:  People with physical disabilities that affect movement can use mobility aids. dexterity or hearing loss. which makes them limited and otherwise incapable of experiencing things that they somehow wanted to do. Due to the difficulties that physically disabled individuals experience on their everyday lives.

such as voice recognition programs. book holders.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II.  Many types of devices help people with disabilities perform such tasks as cooking. tennis. and wider doorways. and screen enlargement applications. can help people function following brain injury. including computer or electrical assistive devices. Medication dispensers with alarms 9 . Kitchen implements are available with large.  Adaptive switches make it possible for a child with limited motor skills to play with toys and games. Such modifications include ramps.  Lightweight. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Cognitive assistance. screen readers. help people with mobility and sensory impairments use computer technology.  Barriers in community buildings. cushioned grips to help people with weakness or arthritis in their hands. V. and workplaces can be removed or modified to improve accessibility. automatic door openers. dressing. such as automatic page-turners. grab bars.  Computer software and hardware. high-performance wheelchairs have been designed for organized sports.  Closed captioning allows people with hearing impairments to enjoy movies and television programs. and grooming. assistive devices. allow learners with disabilities to participate in educational activities. INC. businesses. V. and racing. such as basketball. and adapted pencil grips.  In the classroom and elsewhere.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING can help people remember to take their medicine on time. vision and communication capacities. mobility aides. V. Soliven Avenue II.  organizing regional and country workshops. hearing. INC. However. WHO. people with a loss in functioning are better able to live independently and participate in their societies. People who use wheelchairs for mobility can use extendable reaching devices to reach items on shelves. assistive devices and technologies such as wheelchairs. is assisting these efforts by:  developing normative guidelines. With the aid of these technologies.  providing assistance for the development of national policies and programs on assistive devices and technologies with a focus on human resource development. only 5%15% of people who require assistive devices and technologies have access to them.  creating a database on availability of appropriate assistive devices and technologies. 10 . visual aids.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. in partnership with collaborating centers and partners. and specialized computer software and hardware increase mobility. V. in many low-income and middle-income countries. hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requests the states to promote access to assistive devices and technologies at an affordable cost and facilitate training for people with disabilities and professionals and staff working in habilitation and rehabilitation services. prostheses. meetings and seminars to promote and facilitate access to assistive devices especially in low-earning countries.

Many soldiers and veterans played a part in the devices creation and its design was billed as one of the first times that rehabilitation engineering had occurred. By the 19th and 20th century wheelchairs were constructed of wood and wicker design. but there are many other devices as well that have been used for thousands of years. by two engineers. During this time there were some advances in manual wheelchair technology. backed by the Canadian government and many other scientists. INC. Wheelchairs and mobility scooters. who was the King of Spain during the 16th century. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Brief History of Personal Mobility Assistive Devices People have been using personal mobility devices for many hundreds of years. which created an influx of disabled veterans. In 1950 the first powered wheelchair was designed. V. It was designed by an inventor named George Klein and was intended to help veterans of World War II. Soliven Avenue II. The first known image of a wheelchair was carved into a stone in the 6th century and King Philip II. A US patent was issued for this design in 1894 and they were used by veterans of the Civil War and the First World War. one of whom was injured in a mining accident. have been greatly improved upon over the years. 11 . The first folding wheelchair was designed in 1932. two popular types of mobility devices. It had large front wheels and a single wheel in back. spearheaded the development of a motorized wheelchair.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. many of the individuals who suffered spinal cord injuries had survived World War II. In the 18th century the first wheelchair similar in design to those available today was developed. but many quadriplegic individuals were still unable to use manual wheelchairs without assistance. Their history and benefit to society is well recorded and known. Unlike the first war. used a very elaborate wheelchair that had both armrests and leg rests. Klein.

Modern mobility devices are very advanced. As is usually the case. humans have greatly improved upon the designs of early mobility devices. many more advancements were made. A mobility scooter can not be pulled up to a table or desk as easily as a wheelchair. V. Manual wheelchairs became much lighter and maneuverable. Mobility scooters were first introduced in the late 1960's and by the early 1970's they had become a very popular alternative to the powered wheelchair. 12 . Soliven Avenue II. and feature rechargeable batteries. Many athletes who were mobility challenged pushed for more athletic models and there were many advances in the technology that was behind the motorized wheelchair. The walker is a non-motorized mobility device that has been used in some shape or form as long as the wheelchair. but find it painful to do so over extended periods of time. INC. are electric powered. V. The models and types available today are some of the most reliable and dependable available and will provide many years of dependable service. These types of devices are great because you can push the walker instead of having to lift it. Mobility scooters are more intended for people who are able to walk for short distance. They feature hand brakes and also double as a chair. but some are able to travel over 40 miles per charge.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The specific range of these devices can vary. Modern walkers often feature front wheels and are called rolling walkers or rollators. There have also been many advances in non-motorized devices. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING After the invention of the motorized wheelchair.

As most neuromuscular disorders are progressive. or three wheels 13 . or five wheels  Foot plates  Handlebars to turn one. Power scooters may include the following features:  Seat over three. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. and can be disassembled and transferred in a vehicle. four. Here are some of the most common assistive devices that is used by people who were suffering from such disorder:  POWER SCOOTERS Figure 2. are relatively lightweight. spina bifida and many more. it is more likely that an individual’s need for assistive devices will change over time.1 Power Scooter Power scooters are an option to maximize functional independence. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Assistive Devices for a Neuromuscular Disordered Individual There are many aids and devices that can help people with neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy. two. Soliven Avenue II. These devices tend to make them feel more comfortable and independent. V. They require strong upper body strength.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II. V. Walkers provide greater overall stability and support. FD power scooters are usually smaller than RD with a weight capacity of 250 pounds. Canes are useful when one leg is stronger than the other. Some RD power scooters have a weight capacity of 500 pounds depending on the manufacturer. V. and are appropriate for both indoor and outdoor use. RD power scooters have a weight capacity of 350 pounds. Getting fitted with a wheelchair requires careful consideration and professional 14 .2 Walkers and Canes Using a walker or cane can help to reduce fatigue and increase ones mobility.  WALKERS AND CANES Figure 2. INC.  WHEELCHAIRS Many people with neuromuscular disorders use a wheelchair to increase and ease mobility. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Steering column with forward/reverse directions and speed controls There are two main types of power scooters—front-wheel drive (FD) and rearwheel drive (RD). and are appropriate for indoor use. An Occupational Therapist or Physical Therapist could help a patient determine the right device to meet his or her needs.

INC. Figure 2. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. There are two main types of wheelchairs – manual and power. Although a wheelchair can be purchased from a home health supplier. it is preferable to first have a complete assessment from an Occupational Therapist to determine the most suitable equipment a patient. An Occupational Therapist will complete a seating assessment to determine a patients needs.3 Manual Wheelchair Manual wheelchairs are useful for people who have upper body stability and can easily position themselves in the chair. V. These chairs are light to push and usually collapse to fit easily in a car. Each has its own list of features and considerations. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING advice. Soliven Avenue II. Manual wheelchairs may include the following features:  high reclining back with headrest  elevating leg rests  seat and back cushions 15 .

power wheelchairs allow for greater mobility and independence. They do not fold. Soliven Avenue II. These chairs are specifically tailored to the user to ensure they are properly fitted and easy to manage. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  adjustable height arm rests removable for transfers  quick-release rear wheels for easy breakdown and storage in a vehicle  correct seat height for transfers and propelling yourself forward  seat width appropriate for entry and exit through doors at home Figure 2. While more expensive than a manual wheelchair. V. INC. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. They are operated using a joystick or other devices that can be controlled by almost any part of the body that you can move.4 Power Wheelchair Power wheelchairs are appropriate for people who cannot manually propel themselves. so special ramps are needed for a power wheelchair to move into a car. Power wheelchairs may include the following features:  power control switches that can be modified to operate with very small muscle movements 16 . especially outdoors.

V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  back recline with head support  recline and tilt  power-operated elevated leg rests  power tilt  ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Many neuromuscular disorders lead to weakening of the joints and muscles. and the spine Figure 2.5 Ankle-foot orthoses 17 . V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. limbs. so the doctor or physiotherapist may recommend a type of body support called an orthosis. People use orthoses to:  support the joints in certain positions when muscles weaken  prevent contractures (permanent shortening of a muscle or joint caused by prolonged spasticity or stiffness in the muscles)  enhance comfort  assist the movement of joints. Soliven Avenue II.

Weak ankle muscles may make it difficult to pick up the foot to walk properly. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Ankle-foot orthoses sometimes called AFOs. which makes grasping eating utensils and other objects easier. these are simple plastic splints that may be worn under pants. This is called foot drop.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. Additional supports can be added for positioning the fingers. Figure 2.6 Hand and Wrist Supports Hand and wrist supports. which allows fine motor movements. and can lead to stumbling on stairs or curbs and tripping while walking. A wrist and thumb splint can stabilize the wrist and thumb. Soliven Avenue II. AFOs are useful for people who have weak muscles supporting the ankle joint. INC. Figure 2. V. such as writing with weakened fingers.7 Universal Cuffs 18 .

V. and other small items. Soliven Avenue II. cervical collars are sometimes used to support the head when neck muscles are weak. hairbrushes. The cuff straps over the hand. V.9 Implants and Prosthetics Medical implants are devices or tissues that are placed inside or on the surface of the body. intended to replace missing body parts. Many implants are prosthetics. weak shoulder muscles can cause the arms to hang unsupported. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The universal cuff may be the most familiar orthotic aid. Implants and Prosthetics Figure 2.8 Shoulder and Neck Shoulder and neck supports. Over time. Other implants 19 . INC. which enables a person with weakened hand muscles to grasp objects like cutlery.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Similarly. Figure 2. A shoulder sling can reduce the pressure on arm muscles and ligaments.

or even have the implant removed. V. you should expect these types of complications. or stop working properly. pain. Soliven Avenue II. Some implants are made from skin. the patient may require additional surgery to repair or replace the implant. plastic.Implants can be placed permanently or they can be removed once they are no longer needed. Most come from skin contamination at the time of surgery.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. bone or other body tissues. Others are made from metal. break. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING deliver medication. swelling and redness. For example. The risks of medical implants include surgical risks during placement or removal. If this happens. But chemotherapy ports or screws to repair broken bones can be removed when they no longer needed. Over time. These include bruising at the surgical site. Infections are common. an implant could move. take medication. When your implant is inserted or removed. If an individual get an infection. Some people also have reactions to the materials used in implants. INC. monitor body functions. he or she may need to have a drain inserted near the implant. infection. stents or hip implants are intended to be permanent. 20 . All surgical procedures have risks. V. or provide support to organs and tissues. and implant failure. ceramic or other materials.

Due to this. however. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. Prostheses. V. or one is newly made to fit the user properly. The need for ambulation aids has been met without great difficulty through the Community-Based Rehabilitation Program. Meeting needs has been difficult as a result. 15 workshops in the Philippines had been established by an NGO that makes orthoses and prostheses. primarily ambulation aids like canes. at present. Soliven Avenue II. Orthoses. the Philippines has adopted the service of SGS (Society General Surveillance) so that the computation of customs duties is performed in the country of origin of the materials. making customs clearance easier in the Philippines. and wheelchairs. V. Betty Dy-Mancao of PGH-UP Manila. These devices are usually imported instead. ambulation aids are mostly donated to people with disabilities. The socket is then modified. In the Philippines. but are mainly located in the metropolitan areas. province of China. Thirteen private workshops are located around the country. bought from Germany and Taiwan. This practice. they are subjected to customs duties and tariffs.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. orthoses and orthopedic shoes were also used to be donated in large numbers.2 Local Literature Status and Production of Assistive Devices in the Philippines According to Dr. walkers. province of China. motorized wheelchairs and hearing aids. Materials used in prostheses are also imported from Germany and Taiwan. 21 . prostheses. There are only four workshops for other assistive devices. crutches. Since these materials were imported. has been discouraged because these devices are highly user-specific and must custom-fit each user. however. because their manufacture is easily taught. Donated devices are still made use of by removing reusable components like the knee joint and shaft. are more complicated to produce. INC.

Other private agencies can each make six to seven prostheses per month or a total of up to 936 lower-limb prostheses annually. making devices unaffordable. especially in the rural areas. Soliven Avenue II.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.  Non-availability of raw materials used for making devices. with only about five to eight limbs made per year. in limited areas within the country. The manufacture of Jaipur-type below knee prostheses is substantial. or local shoemakers.  A lack of awareness among community members. Often.  Conditions.  A lack of trainers and training programs for orthoptists and prosthetists. they are undertaken by users themselves. at 35 units per month or 420 annually. however. such as medical complications. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING At present. Wheelchairs are produced locally at a rate of 30 chairs monthly or 360 a year. 22 . INC. V. Local manufacture of upper-limb prostheses is less common. potential users and health professionals about the need for referrals and the availability of resources and devices.  High cost of technology and poor financial situation of users. These are usually made by privately-owned workshops. Production is relatively limited for the following reasons:  A limited number of workshops. or 900 lower-limb prostheses annually. that make it difficult to apply a prosthesis or other device. Repairs are supposed to be carried out by the workshops where these devices are made. V. family members. the workshops established by the NGO which creates orthoses and prostheses could manufacture an average of three below knee and two above knee prostheses a month.  A small number of formally trained orthoptists and prosthetists.

and is called the "Z package". a 25-year-old construction worker hit a live electrical wire while working on a building site and sustained injuries that required amputation of his leg below the knee. Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The “Z Package” In April 2013. published in 2011. his family was impoverished. He is married. V. Without his monthly wages. In 2012. WHO recommended that countries include rehabilitation within health insurance schemes to increase access for people like Alan. Alan Santos was able to subscribe to Philhealth and become the first recipient of a “Z package” prosthesis. V. Due to this. The board was convinced. 23 . has a one-year-old child and was his family’s sole breadwinner. with support from the local government. he was admitted to the Philippine General Hospital in Manila to be measured for a prosthesis and receive training on how to walk on his new leg. Alan Santos. His employer has offered to re-hire him after his discharge. Prosthesis provision was then selected as the first rehabilitation service to be covered by Philhealth. In September. In the "World report on disability". His contract did not provide health insurance or hospital benefits.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The gap was substantial—one NGO had a registry of some 2000 people in need of a prosthesis but could not afford one. the Philhealth board was presented national data which showed that an estimated 30% of people with disabilities in the Philippines could return to work if provided with an assistive device like a prosthesis for a missing limb. INC.

As a result. the Philippines realizes the importance of accessibility to its disabled citizen. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Figure 2. services. one can rarely find a disabled person traveling alone around the city. Wheelchair ramps are present only in certain government properties and disability-related establishments. However.10 Alan Santos availing the Z Package The State of Accessibility in the Philippines Accessibility refers to the design of products. According to Even Grounds. Soliven Avenue II. or environments for people with disabilities.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. These groups of students therefore have to provide their own assistive devices and software at school. The Philippine government is open to the idea of providing more support to accessibility. V. Accessibility has nonetheless garnered more recognition now than in the past few years. INC. as a developing Asian country. there are lack of facilities for disabled people. In spite of 24 .com. Colleges generally do not have services specifically for disabled students. Most persons with disabilities prefer to have a companion when commuting to other places. Only few areas have audio traffic signals and tactile marks in walkways which could help individuals with visual impairments to walk around with ease. accessibility has become a low priority for assigned government agencies. V. In public places in the Philippines. due to other national issues and concerns. devices.

academic institutions are now more receptive towards disabled students. Soliven Avenue II. not all department stores have wheelchair ramps and restrooms designated for persons with disabilities. Companies however are trying their best to train their staff on properly serving and interacting with disabled customers. 25 . For instance. With regard to academic events. V. Commercial establishments such as malls also have only few accessibility-related facilities. V. there are only a handful of conferences and seminars wherein Braille and large print formats of materials are available.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING this.

As time passes by. The device is called the Intelligent Cane or simply the I-Cane. The studies or projects below includes different assistive technologies that undergo technological advancements.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Through the use of a regular cane that was bought off the market. the blind must rely on their ears to avoid accidents. The application of technological advancement to these devices enabled them to be more effective and otherwise economical or both. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. An example assistive technology which undergo technological development is a walking stick that could alert the user when he or she is about to approach a certain object/obstacle or vice versa.3 Foreign Studies Assistive devices were tools. V. Using the I-Cane. These devices help these individuals in such a way that these tools enable them to explore or do new things or activities which they normally cannot execute because of a disorder or disease.The Intelligent Cane will benefit users by sensing approaching objects and providing a warning signal. Soliven Avenue II. products or types of equipment which may help a disabled individual to perform tasks and activities that he or she could not do.11 I-Cane Concept 26 . V. technology evolves. Advancement in technology had also been applied to these assistive tools. a visually impaired individual will gain independence and self-assurance. Figure 2. INC.

Afterwards. the circuit board will then send a signal or command to a buzzer or vibrator in order to activate it. a circuit board.12 I-Cane Processing Concept The I-Cane is made up of a hollow plastic tube. a MP3 player. a GPS feature. and a battery. a sonar sensor device. a buzzer. Hung Huy Thai. V. Figure 2. These future enhancements will include making the product more portable. The sensor device that is attached to the cane sends a signal to the circuit board. V. Soliven Avenue II. Such features include the ability to be foldable and having a smaller and lighter circuit board. are also other features that could be possibly added. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The I-Cane device could detect objects or obstacles within a range of 1 meter. Thai has won several awards for the I-Cane project and hopes to enhance the product further. according to Thai. However. INC. a "clap hands" buzzer so users can locate the cane. The buzzer or vibrator will be able to alert the user once it is activated. 27 . was the engineer heading the project.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. a vibrating motor. including an LED light that will shine at night. This would be of great help in order to avoid accidents and could save lives.

Data are transmitted wirelessly to a remote computer and visual information is displayed on the crutch if the patient uses it incorrectly.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Figure 2. Soliven Avenue II. 28 .13 Intelligent Crutches Crutches was also one assistive device that recieve the gift of technological advancement. which was developed by Professor Neil White and Dr Geoff Merrett at the University's School of Electronics and Computer Science in conjunction with Georgina Hallett. a physiotherapist at Southampton General Hospital. V. an Intelligent Crutch was developed by engineers at the University of Southampton in September 12. INC. Using a sensor to monitor the usage of such device. V. is fitted with three accelerometers that detect movement and force sensors that measure the weight being applied to a patient's leg and the position of his/her hand on the grip. The crutch. 2009.

’ At the moment. Until now. the crutch is suitable for monitoring and training patients in hospital environments. ‘This will help them to get out of hospital faster and also reduce their risk of further damaging an already injured leg by putting too much or too little weight through it.’ said Georgina Hallett. INC.14 Torque Sensor Free Power Assisted Wheelchair 29 . and how much weight they are allowed to put through their injured leg. These crutches will make it much easier for patients to be taught how to use them properly. the researchers have plans to develop a pair for use in patients' homes. Soliven Avenue II. V. even though repeated incorrect use of the crutch could make the patient's injury worse. Figure 2. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 'A growing number of people are in need of physiotherapy. off-the-shelf technology and sensors similar to those used in Nintendo Wii.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.’ said Professor White.’ The new crutch has been developed using lowcost. V. ‘but reports from physiotherapists indicate that people do not always use crutches in the correct manner. there has been no way to monitor this.

Instead of using torque sensor. which was commonly used by powered assisted wheelchairs. The main objective of these researchers for conducting this study is to give a new. A power assisted wheelchair is a mobility device which combines both human power and electric power. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING In January 2007. the power assisted wheelchair that they’ve develop could help not only the user but the assistant that will push the mobility device since the device itself gives additional speed or power boost by the use of speed sensors which was not possible when force sensors (connected to push rims) was used.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. their prototype mainly rely on rotational encoders or speed sensors that measures the velocity or speed of the wheelchair when it starts moving. better and more economical way for individuals to use a powered assisted wheelchairs because torque or force sensors are not that cost efficient. V. INC. someone by the name of Jonas Johansson and Daniel Petersson conducted a master thesis design that was a power assisted wheelchair system. aside from being economical. Soliven Avenue II. The wheelchair system which they developed is a rebuilt electric wheelchair which does not include a torque sensor. These types of wheelchairs are commonly used by individuals who have used regular wheelchairs but have become weaker or those individuals who just need additional power when going uphill. According to Johansson and Petersson. V. 30 .

Darryll Jade Arias. Aljon Santillan. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. The wheelchair can also be elevated to a height of eight inches at most. high enough to steer clear of sidewalk gutters. Lloyd Edwinson Arellano and Jonathan Temeña built a prototype of a wheelchair that has the ability to stop automatically and detect objects with the help of infrared (IR) sensors installed at the front and back of the mobility device. V. Soliven Avenue II.15 Voice Controlled Wheelchair 31 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.4 Local Studies In the Philippines. V. preventing users from colliding with the blockages along their way. a group of young aspiring Computer Engineers from the Mapua Institute of Technology developed their own wheelchair system. The group also placed a pair of sensors beneath the wheelchair to give it the capability to halt its movement once the sensors detect the lack of surface underneath. It also has three pairs of LED lights that light up when the IR sensors detect obstacles in its path. INC. Francis Mark Luna. a feature that will prevent users from falling off the stairs. during the year 2012. Figure 2. The group’s primary objective of this mobility device’s development is to enable physically challenged individual with no hands to move freely using a mobility companion which is the wheelchair. This wheelchair system’s primary means of control or command is via voice recognition.

Keeshia Cuesta. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Another study regarding the wheelchair technology was conducted on the year 2013. According to one of the researchers. Soliven Avenue II. INC. although it requires some skills to operate. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. According to Ms. The study was entitled as “The Development of Eye Controlled Wheelchair for Amputees” and was awarded as the best thesis. the wheelchair is easy to use and maneuver. 32 . this project was intended to replace the arms and legs control for wheelchair which cannot be done for some individuals with severe physical injuries. which is Ms. wherein several students from De La Salle Araneta University innovated a simple manually propelled wheelchair into an eye-controlled wheelchair. This wheelchair technology uses eye gesture recognition which calculates or detects certain looks and blinks of the user’s eye. Cuesta. V.

enabling therapists and doctors in a rehabilitation to monitor if an individual properly uses the device or not. Most of the studies involved the use of wheelchair devices. Due to this device. each of which has its own unique means of control. Soliven Avenue II. there were several similarities and differences that these projects have with the proposed design Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair. If this is to be done with the proposed system. its flexibility would greatly increase as it could still be used by individuals who have a higher form of disability. V. as both could be used by patients without arms or without a functioning arm. through the use of this device. it helps individuals by monitor the crutch use.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. especially if wireless technology is to be used. 33 . Although there are differences in the specific purposes of each of these projects. although the Intelligent Crutches were not made for user’s practical automation. which is to help the physically challenged individual. The most similar study in a sense is the wheelchair system which uses a voice and eye controlled wheelchairs. it will be easier for crutch users to learn how to properly use their equipment which would furtherly enhance their mobility experience. injuries or even death due to incidents will have a lower rate. could be modified to also fit for this purpose. there is still a common interest. The Intelligent Cane was intended to help the blind with their mobility as it will serve a warning device if there is some obstacle in their path. V. Through the help of the I-Cane. furtherly increasing the injuries of an individuals because of equipment misuse would be prevented. Also. Aside from being same devices.5 Synthesis of the Study Based from the past and present recent-on-going studies or projects presented above. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. the aim for their developments are almost the same. The proposed project on the other hand. On the other hand. INC. Hand Gesture Controlled wheelchair.

V. This would help a lot for those individuals who tend to choose manual propelling rather than electronic controls. The two automated wheelchair devices coming from the same country. which ensures that external human intervention would be lessened and otherwise no longer needed. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Most of the studies presented above were wheelchairs. The first wheelchair device presented above is the Torque free Power Assisted Wheelchair which could let a person who was versed in using manual wheelchair to have an extra pushing boost.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. . but still needs help when going uphill. This could also benefit the assistant of a disabled individual because it uses rotary encoder rather than force sensors which would mean that as long as the wheels move the extra pushing boost would still be activated. V. the Philippines. 34 . INC. Wheelchairs have been popular for individuals who were unable to use crutches or canes because of full lower body paralysis due to some kind of disease. All of these automation studies tend to help physically challenged individuals by letting and otherwise teaching them the proper way of being more self-reliant with their personal mobility. was both useful for individuals who have limited upper body functions or have higher forms of disability. Soliven Avenue II.

or environments for people with disabilities. V. Soliven Avenue II. video screen.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. cerebral palsy a disease which causes an individual to have speaking and movement problems closed captioning The processes of displaying text on a television. dexterity the ability to use ones hand skillfully eye gesture recognition refers to the mathematical interpretation of human eye motion using a computing device genetic disease a disease caused by an abnormality in an individual's genome. services. V.6 Definition of Terms Terms Definition accessibility the design of products. or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. devices. typically progressive disease involving damage to the 35 . medical illness. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. amputation the removal of a limb by trauma. crutches mobility aids that transfer weight from the legs to the upper body. infrared sensors a device or instrument that is used to detect or measure infrared radiation mainstream a prevailing current or direction of activity or influence microcontroller a microprocessor that controls some or all of the functions of an electronic device or system mobility being readily able to move from one place to another muscular dystrophy a serious disease that causes increasing weakness of muscles multiple sclerosis a chronic. INC. or surgery.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord myelopathy a disease on the spinal cord orthoses an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system osteogenesis imperfecta an inherited disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the bones. V. rollators was designed using the same basic principles of the regular standard walker but was to address specific needs that were not being met by the traditional walker rotational encoders electromechanical device that converts the angular position of a shaft to an analog or digital code speed sensors devices used to detect the speed of an object. progressive muscular a rare subtype of motor neuron disease (MND) that affects only the atrophy lower motor neurons. or congenital conditions. prostheses are artificial device that replaces a missing body part. Soliven Avenue II. V. which may be lost through trauma. usually a transport vehicle spina bifida a birth defect where there is an incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord torque sensors a device for measuring and recording the torque on a rotating system.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. disease. such as an engine voice recognition the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words 36 . INC.

3. structure or design Development and Testing -prototype assembly and testing Finalization -finalization of the prototype design OUTPUT   Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair Evaluation of prototype limitations FEEDBACK Figure 3. Soliven Avenue II. the conceptual framework’s illustration shows that there were three different phases such as the input. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER III CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter of the study is intended to describe the conceptual and theoretical framework of the study. process and output. V. circuitry diagram.1 Conceptual Framework As shown on figure 2. contains the different requirements needed to start the project prototype. as shown on the figure. INC. V.1 Conceptual Framework      INPUT Requirements: Accelerometer Sensor Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board Motor Driver Circuit and Motor LCD module Knowledge in Arduino Programming and Circuits or Electronics     PROCESS Planning -purpose of the project Design -materials. These 37 . costs.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.1. The input phase.

The knowledge requirements on the other hand pertain to the knowledge that one must have in order to start building the prototype. After the development and testing phase. the motors. The hardware or materials requirements are the physical components that are needed in order to build the project prototype namely the sensor (accelerometer). The finalization phase is the process or activity wherein the prototype’s overall design is being finalized. when the prototype is developed. Afterwards. the components were being interfaced and the logical structure or source codes were being developed. the microcontroller. The results of the evaluation will 38 . The design phase includes the gathering of project materials. it could be said that the output phase pertains to the prototype itself and the evaluation of its capabilities and functions. design. In simple terms. INC. easier. the finalization phase will start. the motor driver and the LCD screen. The process phase pertains to the activities done during the creation or development of the prototype project. V. it will be tested. development of the circuitry diagram. During the development and testing phase. The output phase pertains to the outcome of the activities done during the development of the prototype project. This knowledge could be used as a guide to accomplish the project in a faster. determining of the costs involved. This phase is sub-divided in four different sub-phases namely the planning. and safer way. the prototype project’s assembly commences. and the development of the structure or physical appearance of the project. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING requirements were basically divided into two which is the hardware or materials requirements and the knowledge requirements. and finalization phase. The planning phase involves the determining of the researchers’ intention of creating such project. development and testing.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING reflect to the input and process phase by which is mainly responsible for the concept’s result or outcome. INC. V. V. 39 . Soliven Avenue II.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

not by old buttons.2 Theoretical Framework The Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair was developed based on the principles of an existing prototype project called the Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. This data is then processed by a microcontroller and finally will be passed on to the motor driver to control the motor's movements. The Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled by the user’s hand movements. Soliven Avenue II. V. an RF Receiver module receives the encoded data and decode it by the decoder IC(HT12D).2 Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot 40 . The transmitting device included an ADC for analog to digital conversion and an encoder IC(HT12E) which is used to encode the four bit data and then it will be transmitted by an RF Transmitter module. At the receiving end. Figure 3. V. This device will transmit an appropriate command to the robot so that its movements could controlled. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3. A small transmitting device is needed to be mounted on to the user’s hand which includes an acceleration meter.

the predecessor of the accelerometer included in this study. 41 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II. The Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair was one of the bearing fruit for the purpose of that project. V. Due to this robotic project reference. meaning. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The notable differences between the Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot and Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair. The Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot’s primary purpose is to create a new means of control for devices which could create a better and improved manipulation. especially if it has a same type of encoder and decoder. the researchers of this study were able to create a project which has the same control mechanism but with new and improved features to help out our brothers and sisters that is going through physical challenges. if two devices are to meet which both uses RF communication for wireless control. are the devices or components used for the system which makes it more efficient. The Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot truly served as the researchers guide for this study. INC. V. The indication feature was also improved. aside from the size and specific functionality. The Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot uses a parallel-type connection accelerometer which is the ADXL335. instead of using LED lights as indicators. Aside from that. The researchers agreed to change this sensor because it uses much more data line space and consumes more power than what is used in this project. which would be unreliable if the user is unfamiliar with the device. there would be a tendency of control malfunction over these devices because of possible signal distortion. the researchers of this study decided to use LCD module which uses serial data connection on the prototype in order to have a clear indication and at the same time less data space and power consumption. the researchers of this study agreed to use a wired communication rather than a wireless one because RF communication tend to have a less secured connection.

3 Project Work Breakdown Structure The preparation of the proposed system and activities of the group in accomplishing and finalizing the project is presented on the table shown below. Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Preparation 1 2 3 4 5 Submission of Project Proposal Submission of Title Project Approval for Title Project Data Gathering Chapter 1 Documents Chapter 2 Documents System 42 6 7 8 9 10 11 . This serves as the schedule for the weekly accomplish of the Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair design project. V. INC. Soliven Avenue II. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Development Chapter 3 Documents Completed 20% of the system Completed 50% of the system Chapter 4 Documents Chapter 5 Documents Completed 100% of the system 43 . V. INC. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.4 Organizational Flow Chart Collaboration between members of a group or team is very essential in getting the job done. Programmer & Leader Christan Mark Gonzales Mark Ale Talledo HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR Materials/ Research Alvin Raymundo Documents Edgardo Bernardo Prototype Design 44 . V. V. Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3. INC. The chart below illustrates the part that a member contributes for this study.

45 . The experimental approach was also used in this study. as a unit and as an integrated technology. INC. The technique that was used under quantitative research is the normative survey approach and evaluation. miscalculations and failures. ensuring that each component would be free from errors. the quantitative method of research is an empirical study of observable phenomena through the use of statistical or mathematical process. V. 4. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter of the study is intended to describe the methodology of research used in the study. The survey-questionnaire is appropriate in this study because it enables the researchers to formulate generalizations from the responses of participants. V. which is commonly used to explore opinions according to respondents that can represent a whole population.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.1 Method of Research This study uses a quantitative research method. It aims to test or evaluate the parts of the system to be developed. Soliven Avenue II. As widely accepted.

V. Experimentation or testing of the prototype device will be done in order to ensure that errors will be checked and not disregarded. Soliven Avenue II. The respondents for this study were randomly selected students from ICCT Colleges. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. Experimentation or testing is combined with normative survey approach in order to strengthen the justification that the collected information or data was genuine or valid. They shall be selected by non-probability sampling and shall be composed of males and females.2 Sources of Data The respondents for this study may be either normal or disabled individuals or both because the proponents believe that one or both could still perceive whether the device is effective or not. 46 .

V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. These data collecting instrument is used solely for the purpose of gathering the needed data for this study. arranged and set by the researches of this study. Soliven Avenue II. 47 . V. the questionnaires will be collected back so that the responses could be systematically evaluated and tabulated. Each question will be under a certain field or sub-field which will evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype project. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4. After the respondents completed the survey.3 Data Gathering Instrument Data Gathering will be done by the use of survey questionnaires. INC. These survey questionnaires will be handed over to the chosen respondents of the study. These questionnaires were carefully formulated.

each of these components were tested in order to ensure that it is free from errors and failures. These survey questionnaires will be helpful to seek the significance of the study to be conducted. After these components were integrated together to form a prototype system. V.4 Data Collection Procedure Random people will be asked to answer the survey questionnaires upon their approval. As for the proposed system. the components’ functionality as a whole was tested and evaluated. 48 . INC. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The results or findings of the conducted survey will enable the researchers to make proper or appropriate generalizations by evaluating people’s specific opinions and ideas about the study. as the materials needed is collected. Soliven Avenue II.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4.3.01 . The responses were based on the respondents’ assessment about the study. V.1.2. INC. Scale Range Interpretation 5 4.00 Fairly Agree 2 1.00 Disagree 1 0.00 Agree 3 2.01 . The range and interpretation of Likert scale are given at the table below. whether they agree to a given statement or not.00 Strongly Agree 4 3.4. V.5 Statistical Treatment of Data The Likert scale was used to interpret items in the questionnaire.01 .01 . The formula in computing weighted mean is as follows: WM = ∑fx xt Where: WM = Weighted Mean f = weight given to each response x = number of responses xt = total number of responses 49 .00 Strongly Disagree Table 3.01 .1 Statistical Treatment of Data Weighted mean was used to measure the general response of the survey samples. Soliven Avenue II.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.5.

This was done with the hope that this would promote trust between the researchers and the respondents. INC. so that they would be more open. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II. 50 . Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4. and they were assured that the data gathered from them would be treated with the strictest confidence. V. The respondents' cooperation was eagerly sought after. People who participated in the research were given an ample time to respond to the questions posed on them to avoid errors and inaccuracies in their answers.6 Ethical Considerations The survey forms were created in a way that is very clear and concise in order to prevent conflicts among respondents.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.1. It could sense either static or dynamic acceleration.1 Hardware Components 1. ADXL345 3-Axis Accelerometer An accelerometer is a device which measures or senses acceleration. circuitry design or diagram.1. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER V PRESENTATION. the better or the more accurate its positioning calculation is. Soliven Avenue II. This will give an overview of the overall proposed system in terms of procedures and figures presented. flow of data and overall cost of the system.) ADXL345 3-Axis Accelerometer Figure 5. The ADXL345 is well suited to measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt-sensing applications. thin. INC. The more axes an accelerometer has.1 Components of the System 5. The ADXL345 is a small. V. Accelerometers could measure acceleration from either one. 3-axis accelerometer. two or three axes. V. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the components of the system. 5. as well 51 . low power. Static acceleration includes gravity while dynamic includes motions and vibration.

6 V DC  Current Consumption: 40 µA at measurement mode and 0.1 µA at standby mode  13-bit resolution of at up to ±16 g  Digital output: 16-bit two’s complement via SPI or I2C Communication Figure 5. Specifications:  Voltage Consumption : 2 – 3. Soliven Avenue II.0°.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Its high resolution (4 mg/LSB) enables measurement of inclination changes less than 1. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion or shock. V. INC. V.2 ADXL345 Pin Configuration 52 .

Soliven Avenue II.1 ADXL 345 Pin Description Table 2. INC. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Table 5. V.) Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board Figure 5.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.3 Arduino Uno 53 .

V. The Uno board is the first in a series of USB Arduino boards. Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328.3 V: 50 mA  Flash Memory: 32 KB (ATMega328P) 54 . It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs). a USB connection. for an extensive list of current. 6 analog inputs. V. Soliven Avenue II. a power jack. an ICSP header. Specifications:  Operating Voltage: 5 V  Input Voltage (recommended): 7 – 12 V  Input Voltage (limit): 6 – 20 V  Digital I/O Pins: 14 (6 has PWM Output)  PWM Digital I/O Pins: 6  Analog Input Pins: 6  DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA  DC Current for 3. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Arduino is a prototyping platform which provides a flexible easy-to-use hardware and software. The Uno board and version 1.0. "Uno" means one in Italian and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1. INC. and the reference model for the Arduino platform.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. It provides easier components interfacing feature and a better programming support. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller. past or outdated boards see the Arduino index of boards. now evolved to newer releases.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of Arduino. a 16 MHz ceramic resonator. and a reset button. simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

55 . digitalWrite(). and digitalRead() functions. V. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. They operate at 5 volts. INC.4 Arduino Uno Pins Input and Output Descriptions Each of the 14 digital pins on the Arduino Uno can be used as an input or output. Soliven Avenue II.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  SRAM: 2 KB (ATMega328P)  EEPROM: 1 KB (ATMega328P)  Clock Speed: 16 MHz Figure 5. using pinMode().

V. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Used with analog Reference(). Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING In addition. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. LED: 13.e. There are a couple of other pins on the board: AREF. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. 10. some pins have specialized functions: Serial: pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Soliven Avenue II. Reset. the LED is on. 11 (MOSI). 9. 12 (MISO). 5. V. though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analog Reference() function. 13 (SCK). See the attachInterrupt() function for details. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function. it’s off. External Interrupts: pins 2 and 3. each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i. When the pin is HIGH value. when the pin is LOW. some pins have specialized functionality: TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. 1024 different values). SPI: 10 (SS).ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value. INC. 56 . or a change in value. 6. and 11. a rising or falling edge. The Uno has 6 analog inputs. PWM: 3. labeled A0 through A5. Support TWI communication using the Wire library. Additionally. By default they measure from ground to 5 volts.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3. Soliven Avenue II. Command and Data. This LCD has two registers. The data register stores the 57 .) LCD Module Figure 5. easily programmable. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. have no limitation of displaying special & even custom character animations. The reasons being: LCDs are economical. V. INC. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it. controlling display etc.5 LCD Module LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. namely. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. V. setting the cursor position. clearing its screen. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs.

V. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Hence. the motor driver is used to control the actuators in bi direction. V. Soliven Avenue II. This unit takes the input from microcontroller and provides high current for actuators to rotate the actuators in both directions. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING data to be displayed on the LCD.) Motor Driver The output provided by the microcontroller is not sufficient to drive the actuators in both directions at high current. 58 .2 LCD Pin Description 4. INC. Table 5.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. operation is based on simple electromagnetism. The current carrying conductor generates magnetic field.8V per channel  PWM capability: up to 25 kHz  Interfaces: 4 digital IO (2 PWM output include)  Driving mode: Dual high-power H-bridge driver 5.8 ~ 35V  Maximum output current: 15A @ 13. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field. The operation of motor is based on simple electromagnetism.7 Motor Motors are the most essential part of the power wheelchair as they provide motion to the system. when this is placed in an external magnetic field.6 Motor Driver Specifications:  Input Voltage: 4. it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor. Soliven Avenue II.8V per channel  Peak output current: 20A @ 13. when this is 59 . V.) 12V DC Motor Figure 5. INC. V. In any electric motor. and to the strength of the external magnetic field. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Figure 5.

) 12V Lead Acid Battery Figure 5. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Soliven Avenue II. and to the strength of the external magnetic field. Specifications:  Voltage range: 12 VDC – 36 VDC  Steel casing diameter: 82 mm  Load speed range: 22 RPM to 300 RPM  Load output power: 80 W to 600 W 6. • It is a lead acid battery which needs to be recharged periodically. it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor. V.8 Lead Acid Battery • 12V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING then placed in an external magnetic field. 32Ah battery supply is used to power the whole system. INC. 60 . V.

and Linux.1. Soliven Avenue II.) Arduino IDE Figure 5. INC. Mac OS X. The environment is written in Java and based on Processing and other open-source software. It runs on Windows. 61 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. V.9 Arduino IDE The open-source Arduino Software (IDE) makes it easy to write code and upload it to the board.2 Software Components 1. V. This software can be used with any Arduino board.

Based on these voltages. INC.If the accelerometer faces the forward direction. Soliven Avenue II. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. the wheelchair will move 62 . Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. it will now evaluate that voltage or signal. After the voltage input is accepted by the Arduino Uno. This is given to the analog pin 4 (SDA) of the Arduino Uno Microcontroller. the directions are displayed on LCD 16X2.2 Circuit Diagram Figure 5.10 Circuit Diagram Description: The voltage input is given by the accelerometer using hand gestures.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING forward and so on. Soliven Avenue II. Speed and direction control is done by using two DC motors that are interfaced into a motor driver that could provide an output current of up to 15A per channel. V. 63 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. V. The system uses a 12V 32Ah battery in order to run.

3 Data Flow Chart START INPUT VOLTAGE (HAND MOVEMENT) D SIGNAL PROCESSING IF (100>y>-100)&& (50>x>-50) C YES STATUS: ON HOLD B NO IF (-180>y>-280)&& (50>x>-50) YES STATUS: MOVING FORWARD NO A 64 B . Soliven Avenue II. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. V. INC.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A IF (180>y>280)&& (50>x>-50) YES STATUS: MOVING B BACKWARD NO IF (280>x>150) YES STATUS: MOVING B LEFT NO IF (-280>x>-150) YES STATUS: MOVING RIGHT NO C B CHANGE OPERATION? YES D NO E 65 B . V. Soliven Avenue II. V. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING E CONTINUE OPERATION? YES CONTINUE CURRENT MOVEMENT NO STOP Figure 5. Soliven Avenue II.11 Data/System Logic Flow Chart 66 . INC. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V.

aside from the physical appearance. The manual wheelchair is modified to become an electric or automated wheelchair. Although it is stated that the hand gesture controlled wheelchair uses hand movements. It could be modified in a sense that the controller could be mounted on a different part of the user’s body if ever his or her hand is unable to be moved. Soliven Avenue II. since it was a manual wheelchair modified to become an electric or automated wheelchair.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Conventional electric wheelchair uses a joystick controller in order to manipulate or control the movements of the wheelchair while the hand gesture controlled wheelchair uses the hand movements of the person in order to control the movements of the wheelchair. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. it also has a reclining feature which enables the user to bend the wheelchair’s back for up to 180 degrees. it could be controlled manually if ever the controller becomes unreliable or damaged. is the controller. Aside from the gesture control. V. The notable difference between the hand gesture controlled wheelchair and a conventional electric wheelchair. 67 . INC.4 Design Concept The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is basically a modified manual wheelchair. it could be modified. Aside from that. It could therefore be said that the hand gesture controlled wheelchair could be also called as the gesture controlled wheelchair since it is not really limited to be operated by the user’s hand.

Soliven Avenue II.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. V.12 Hand gesture controlled wheelchair’s design 68 . Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Figure 5. V.

5”) Leg rests Elevating Extended Neck-Head Support Yes Speed 5 – 8 km/h Weight Carry Limit 50 kgs. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. V.5 Specification Table Seat Width 16” – 20” Seat Depth 16” Seat-to-Floor Height 19. V.5” Overall Width 24” – 28” Overall Length 42” Overall Height 50” Front Wheel Size 8” Rear Wheel Size 24” Arm rests Full length (9. Soliven Avenue II. Accelerometer (via Controller Movements/Gestures) Power Source 12 V 32 Ah Table 5. – 60 kgs.3 Specifications Table 69 . Maximum Weight Carry Limit 70 kgs.

V. Series of adjustments and troubleshooting to the accelerometer’s inclination sensing was done in order to ensure that the most proper inclination position is used.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.6 Experimentation (Testing) 5. INC. These components were individually tested afterwards in order to know if there were any malfunctions or errors that may occur before the integration testing starts and might bring jeopardy to the system’s operation as a whole.6. the researchers started to develop the coding needed for the movement conditions of the hand gesture controlled wheelchair. the researchers started canvassing for the motors to be used for actual wheelchair (since small motors for testing were already available). The researchers decided to buy those parts which they believe met their set standards for their proposed system.1 Procedures of the Design and Fabrication of the System The researchers have done a series of research about the device before starting to look for materials or components that is needed in order to develop the proposed system. Afterwards. The researchers have decided to conduct a series of canvassing for the manual wheelchair to be modified first because it was the part of the proposed system that has the greatest cost. Then lastly. Soliven Avenue II. V. Upon ensuring that these components were functioning well. The first stage of the design and fabrication of the device formally occured when the researchers started canvassing for the different materials or components needed in order to create the device. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. the modification process for the manually propelled 70 . After ensuring that the components were functioning properly when integrated. the researchers started canvassing for the small electronic components of the proposed system. the researchers started to design circuitry connections which will integrate these devices with each other. When the researchers became satisfied with the coding or programming’s results.

The last stage of the system’s implementation was the testing base on practical evaluations. INC. the motors was attached to the wheels of the wheelchair and the small electronic components had been placed on positions suited for them. V. The researchers tested the wheelchair’s functionality with different weight or loads acting upon it. Upon the completion of the wheelchair’s modification process.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. 71 . Soliven Avenue II. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING wheelchair have started.

All of these components were tested by interfacing each one of them to the arduino uno microcontroller when they are individually evaluated. the motor driver along with the motors. the first LED would then start to glow. the third LED will light up. the fourth LED will be activated. the left-forward or any other hybrid 72 . If the accelerometer is moved in 91 to 120 degrees upward. The first and third LED indicators was both activated on the fifth trial. The first component to be tested was the accelerometer or the controller. Soliven Avenue II. the second LED will light up. a certain LED should be activated. The accelerometer component testing was done by interfacing it with the arduino uno microcontroller and four LED indicators.6. the researchers tried to combine two conditions. If the accelerometer is moved in a degree of starting from 91 to 130 degrees downward. The components that were tested was the accelerometer or the sensor or controller. Each of the components to be used is tested in a way that the desired output will be conforming to the standards set by the researchers. In order to ensure that the finalized prototype system will be free from errors or miscalculations. but on the fifth trial. the testing phase started. Each time the accelerometer is tilted at a certain angle. The researchers think that if this condition is to be applied on to the actual prototype system. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. any LED indicators should not be activated. V. If the accelerometer is moved in 41 to 170 degrees lefward. it is important that the components to be used are functioning properly. the leftward and forward conditions. It seems to be working well in until the fourth trial for the accelerometer.2 Individual Component’s Testing After the components were gathered. if the accelerometer is moved in 41 to 170 degrees rightward. V. Finally. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. and the lcd module. At neutral position or up to 10 degree of upward-downward movement and 40 degree of left-right movement of accelerometer.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
movement might not be a good idea, so the researchers tried to change something on the
condition. The researchers added a condition for the first and second LED to be activated. A
condition similar to the neutral condition was added on to the upward and downward movements.
On the revised conditions, the first LED indicator would only be activated when the accelerometer
is moved from 91 to 130 degrees downward and would not exceed the 40 degrees from left-right
movement. The second LED indicator on the other hand would only be activated if the
accelerometer is move from 91 to 120 degrees upward and is within the 40 degrees range from
left-right.
The second component to be tested was the motor driver along with the motors. The
testing was only done to check if the motor driver could really drive the motors. Through the use of
a sample code for motor testing that is provided by the motor driver’s page, the researchers was
able to test the motor driver. The motor driver successfully drived or controlled the motor. The third
and final component to be tested was the LCD module. The LCD module was tested in order to
ensure that it displays the desired output on to the screen. Through the use of the sample code
from the LCD module’s page, the researchers were able to test the LCD module’s display
accuracy. The program will simply let the LCD module display the phrase “Hello World”. The LCD
module successfully displayed the set word or phrase based on the program.
The table below shows the conducted components’ testing result:
Component

Testing Condition

1st Trial

ADXL345

No LCD must not be activated

Accelerometer

(move 10 degrees upwarddownward or 40 degrees left-

73

2nd Trial

3rd Trial

Status

-

Finished

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
right)
ADXL345

Activate First LED Indicator

Accelerometer

(move 91 to 130 degrees

-

-

Finished

-

-

Finished

-

-

Finished

-

-

Finished

-

Finished

-

Finished

downward)
ADXL345

Activate Second LED Indicator

Accelerometer

(move 91 to 120 degrees
upward)

ADXL345

Activate Third LED Indicator

Accelerometer

(move 41 to 170 degrees
leftward)

ADXL345

Activate Fourth LED Indicator

Accelerometer

(move 41 to 170 degrees
rightward)

ADXL345

First and Third LED Indicator

Accelerometer

must not be activated at the
same time (move 91 to 130
degrees downward and 41 to
170 degrees leftward).

ADXL345

Activate First LED Indicator

Accelerometer

using the new condition (move
91 to 130 degrees downward
and must not exceed 40

74

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
degrees left-right)
ADXL345

Activate Second LED Indicator

Accelerometer

using the new condition (move

Finished

-

Finished

-

-

Finished

91 to 120 degrees upward and
must not exceed 40 degrees
left-right)
Motor Driver and Motor Driver must successfully
Motors

drive the Motors.

LCD Module

The “Hello World” phrase must
be displayed on the screen.

Table 5.4 Individual Component’s Testing Table

75

-

therefore leaving only the motor driver to be unreliable. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. V. The researchers conducted some trial runs to test the system’s functionality.3 Integrated System Testing After the development of the prototype project. The researchers also checked the functionality of the other components. Luckily.6. INC. 76 . The researchers didn’t notice any error or failures in other components of the system. it could hardly move or not move at all. thus. of weight). These trials enabled the researchers to determine which part of the system should be changed in order to attain the set standards if it was still not met. the only downfall is that the weight limit that we have set was not met. the researchers used a motor driver which could draw up to 6A of current per channel. During the third run. During the first run. the current draw became 7 – 8 A. Although. which only permits up to 6 A of current draw.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. of weight rode the wheelchair. The only problem is that when one of the researchers with a 50 kgs. the researchers let a 15 – 20 kgs. Although the motor drivers were not destroyed. during the fourth run. The wheelchair was able to smoothly run while carrying such weight without any problem at low speed.person ride the wheelchair. sat on the wheelchair. This driver was able to start and successfully run the wheelchair. Soliven Avenue II. the researchers decided to test and see if the components used in the system were capable of working to our set standard (wheelchair should be able to carry 70 kgs. On the second trial. one of the researchers which has a weight of around 50 kgs. the 2 A motor driver had been broken due to current overloading. the researchers used a motor driver which has a maximum output current of 2 A per channel. these motor drivers were not burnt because of the regulator found in its circuitry. The current draw (with no load) of the motor was 2 – 3 A. After a few seconds.

77 . 7 – 8 A 6A SUCCESS (NO LOAD). INC. the researchers have concluded that the weight limit for the proposed project prototype wheelchair must be around 50 – 70 kgs. smoothly. TRIALS OR COMPONENT CURRENT MOTOR DRIVER RUNS WITH PROBLEM DRAW CURRENT OUTPUT RESULTS (PER CHANNEL) 1st MOTOR DRIVER 2–3A 2A SUCCESS (NO LOAD) 2nd MOTOR DRIVER 7–8A 2A FAILED (50 kgs. 20 kgs. The wheelchair was able to carry the person but at a slower speed. Due to this observed facts. This driver also contains a regulator or protection circuit inside which limits the current draw of up to 15 A only. Soliven Avenue II. the wheelchair was able to carry a person with 50 kgs. The researchers tried to increase the weight that the wheelchair should carry so they let a 70 kgs. and the actual recommended maximum weight limit must be 60 kgs. only. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING During the fifth run. LOAD) 4th NONE (UNMEASURED) 6 A (STANDARD SUCCESS (apprx. V. this also leaves the motor driver to slightly heat up. only. V. LOAD) 3rd MOTOR DRIVER 2 – 3 A. Using this motor driver.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The current draw during the sixth and final trial was around 14 – 15 A. FAILED (50 kgs. the researchers used a motor driver which could harness up to 15A of current per channel. person to sit on the device.

LOAD. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING NOT MET) 5th LOAD) NONE (UNSURE 7–8A 15 A IF STANDARD SUCCESS (50 kgs. V. V. Slight heating) Table 5.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. LOAD) WILL BE MET) 6th NONE 13 – 14 A 15 A (SUCCESSFUL) SUCCESS (70 kgs.5 Functionality Test Results 78 . INC. Soliven Avenue II.

efficiency. INC. most of which are 2 nd and 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Information Technology. The survey’s aim is to get information from the idea or perception of the respondents about the functionality. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. 2015 at ICCT Colleges Cainta Campus. A five category survey questionnaire was developed in order to evaluate the project prototype. of Total No. reliability.6 Total Tally of Responses 79 . usability and marketability of the device. Each category contains four different statements which will primarily evaluate the student’s perception regarding the project prototype. The students of the said institution served as the respondents of the conducted survey. For the 2nd Year BSIT Students: Strongly Categories Agree Fairly Strongly Total No.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. 46 of them are from the 2nd year BSIT and 39 of them are from the 3 rd year BSIT.7 Survey Results The survey was done on August 19. V. V. The total number of participants was 85. The following table and graph below summarizes the result of the conducted survey. of Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Responses Respondents Functionality 86 62 32 4 0 184 46 Efficiency 74 78 28 1 0 184 46 Reliability 88 70 25 1 0 184 46 Usability 85 76 20 3 0 184 46 Marketability 81 67 29 7 0 184 46 Table 5. Soliven Avenue II.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC.7 Tabular Representation of Student’s Responses Categories Weighted Mean Interpretation Functionality 4. V.33 Stongly Agree 80 .25 Stongly Agree Efficiency 4. V. of Agree Agree Fairly Agree Disagree Disagree Students Functionality 22 16 8 1 0 46 Efficiency 19 20 7 0 0 46 Reliability 22 18 6 0 0 46 Usability 21 19 5 1 0 46 Marketability 20 17 7 2 0 46 Table 5.25 Stongly Agree Reliability 4. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Figure 5.13 Bar Graph Representation of Student’s Responses Strongly Categories Strongly Total No. Soliven Avenue II.

INC.14 Bar Graph Representation of Student’s Responses 81 . V. of Total No.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Usability 4.8 Generalization of the Response for 2nd year BSIT Students For 3rd year BSIT: Strongly Categories Agree Fairly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Total No.21 Stongly Agree Table 5.32 Stongly Agree Marketability 4. Soliven Avenue II. V.9 Total Tally of Responses Figure 5. of Disagree Responses Respondents Functionality 102 43 11 0 0 156 39 Efficiency 100 40 15 1 0 156 39 Reliability 100 47 9 0 0 156 39 Usability 101 41 13 1 0 156 39 Marketability 87 56 10 3 0 156 39 Table 5.

The researchers presumed that this may be because the students from the 3 rd year level’s technical knowledge were better than those who are from the 2 nd year level. It means that they have a better understanding of the technical knowledge that we have shared during the brief 82 .55 Strongly Agree Marketability 4. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Strongly Categories Fairly Strongly Total No. V.10 Tabular Representation of Student’s Responses Weighted Categories Mean Interpretation Functionality 4. Soliven Avenue II. INC.46 Strongly Agree Table 5.58 Strongly Agree Efficiency 4.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.53 Strongly Agree Reliability 4.58 Strongly Agree Usability 4.11 Generalization of the Response for 3rd year BSIT Students Based on the findings of the conducted survey. V. the respondents from the higher year level have a higher acceptance rate of the presented statements than those from the lower year level. of Agree Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Students Functionality 26 11 3 0 0 39 Efficiency 25 10 4 0 0 39 Reliability 25 12 2 0 0 39 Usability 25 10 3 0 0 39 Marketability 22 14 3 1 0 39 Table 5.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING introduction of our prototype project before we started the survey. Also. The researchers have concluded that the 2nd year students might have think of the wheelchair device as inefficient because they still have no to very little idea of how the project will work in terms on technical matters since some or most of the devices incorporated to the proposed system were new to them. Soliven Avenue II. they might have taught that this device would not become a big hit to the market because of the current form factor and design because it looks too simple. while for the 3rd year students.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. but all in all their responses were so far good and is highly appreciated by the researchers. V. the marketability got the lowest. INC. 83 . for the 2nd year students the efficiency field got the lowest acceptance. thus making them more interested on the possible practical use of the prototype project that the researchers introduced. the researchers presume that the students from the higher year level have a more mature way of thinking than those from the lower year level. V. In the 3rd year students’ case. Based on the generalized students’ response.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER VI SUMMARY.1 Summary The study is about an automated wheelchair which is intended to help those individuals who are physically incapable of standing or walking. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter will represent the final ideas. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. concepts. the researchers executed some practical testing or experimentation which includes the accuracy and responsiveness testing of the automated wheelchair device. the user could still switch to manual propelling. and findings as well as the recommendations for the future developments to be done regarding the whole composition of the system. The researchers used a sensor that will enable the wheelchair to move by means of hand movements of the user. Upon completion of the prototype. 6. INC. Soliven Avenue II. The wheelchair uses a low speed but high torque motor which provide slower movements but a greater pushing force or power that will ensure a higher safety percentage for the prototype’s possible user. The researchers also came up with a backup plan in case that controller becomes broken. It was decided by the researchers to create this kind of control mechanism so that the controller’s flexibility could be expanded which means that a user with no fingers or hand could still use it. V. 84 . if possible.

efficiency and reliability as compared to the conventional automated wheelchair. Instead of using the existing way of controlling an automated wheelchair which is by means of a joystick controller attached on to the wheelchair itself. 85 . the researchers have concluded that a sensor which senses the hand movements of the user would be much more efficient. using this device would enable much more control efficiency for the user. which would be of great help for those who does not have fingers or could not accumulate force on to their fingertips.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Soliven Avenue II.2 Conclusion Based from the existing method of controlling an automated wheelchair. Therefore. V. It could enable a user to use the wheelchair without exerting or accumulating force on their fingers or fingertips. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 6. it could be concluded that the hand gesture control wheelchair had a better flexibility. INC. V.

e.  This prototype is recommended for the use of disabled people who could not accumulate enough force on their fingertips. 86 .  It is recommended that the future developers add a new and unique feature (i. V. For instance. obstacle avoidance or emergency navigation tools) to this project so that they could be able to show their innovative ideas to help create a better society. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 6. INC. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.  It is highly recommended by the researchers that the wheelchair’s controller be changed into a wireless configuration to avoid the strangling of wire connections and creating different body mounting capabilities for individuals with higher disability. Soliven Avenue II.3 Recommendation The following statements are recommended by the researchers for the betterment of the study or project:  This project is highly recommended for disabled individuals that would want to automate their personal mobility with a lower cost than a conventional automated wheelchair. has no fingers or hands.  The prototype’s design could be furtherly enhanced by means of altering its form. or has weak arms. just be sure that the wheels are of the same size. changing the wheels and body of the wheelchair when the future researchers wanted to extend the weight limit of the wheelchair.

dpuf WHO.sciencedaily. https://www.sjsu.com/releases/2009/08/090805075642.gov/health/topics/rehabtech/conditioninfo/Pages/device.org/assistiv. http://www.aspx Muscular Dystrophy Canada. “Torque Sensor Free Power Assisted Wheelchair” http://www.nih.htm?fromncshhh Types of Assistive Devices. http://www.S. Food and Drug Administration – Implants and Prosthetics.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ImplantsandProsthetics/ Production and distribution of assistive devices for people with disabilities: Philippines http://www. Accessibility Consulting.htm Jonas Johansson. INC. Daniel Petersson.nchearingloss.sJP8QjXB.who.nichd.fda. Disabilities and Rehabilitation – Assistive Devices/Technologies.ne. http://evengrounds.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.html Even Grounds.dinf.com/blog/accessibility-in-thephilippines The Intelligent Cane (I-Cane).jp/doc/english/intl/z15/z15002p2/z1500206. http://www. http://www. V.com/?The-History-of-Personal-MobilityDevices&id=1241655 U.engr. http://ezinearticles. Soliven Avenue II.htm Intelligent Crutch with Sensors to Monitor Usage.ca/living-with-musculardystrophy/mobility/#sthash.org/smash/get/diva2:237836/FULLTEXT01.muscle. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BIBLIOGRAPHY Assistive Device. http://www.diva-portal.pdf “Pinoy Students Build voice-activated wheelchair” 87 . http://www.int/disabilities/technology/en/ History of Personal Mobility Devices.edu/~mae/projectenable/icane.

php/DC_Motor_Driver_2x15A_Lite_(SKU:_DRI0018) 88 .cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardUno “LCD Module” http://www. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING http://www.com/wiki/index.engineersgarage. V.dfrobot.com/electronic-components/16x2-lcd-module-datasheet “Motor Driver 2 x15A” http://www.gmanetwork. Soliven Avenue II. INC.arduino. V.dfrobot.com/contribution/accelerometer-based-hand-gesture-controlled-robot “Triple Axis Accelerometer ADXL345” http://www.engineersgarage.com/index.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.php?route=product/product&product_id=383 “Arduino Uno” https://www.com/news/story/255914/scitech/technology/pinoy-students-build-voiceactivated-wheelchair Accelerometer Based Hand Gesture Controlled Robot http://www.

Instruction: Put a check () on the number which best describes your position on the statements given below. Please be reminded that there is no right or wrong answer. V. The hand gesture controlled wheelchair has a reclining feature which enables the user to lay down his or her back at up to 180 degrees or 90 degrees from the original position of the wheelchair’s back. and that every data you will provide will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE Student Faculty Others I. Legend: Point 5 4 3 2 1 Interpretation Strongly Agree Agree Fairly Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree 89 . V. INC. To ensure the user’s safety the researchers used a motor which has a low rotational speed but could carry much more weight or load.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.T Engineering Respondents’ Name: Section: Project description: The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is an automated wheelchair device which uses the hand gesture or movements of the user for control or manipulation. Soliven Avenue II. This wheelchair device is a manual wheelchair which is modified or upgraded in order to become an electric or automated wheelchair.

The device's design was simple yet effective. The user could understand the controls in a short period of time. USABILITY The prototype's controls are easy to understand. EFFICIENCY The LCD provides an effective means of status indicator. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING STATEMENTS 5 A. The user will be able to exert less effort when it comes to control. The device's controller provides a new and unique control. The prototype provides the user an accurate control. The prototype wheelchair gives the user a safer means of mobility. Even a person with weak grasp could operate the device. The controller of the prototype is flexible. E. INC. FUNCTIONALITY The prototype provides an automated form of mobility. The prototype gives the user a more natural way of control. RELIABILITY The prototype creates a better means of control. The prototype's control is absolute to the intended user only. Soliven Avenue II. B.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. 90 4 3 2 1 . D. The prototype's controls are easy to memorize or learn. V. The reclining feature of the device would be a hit to the market. C. MARKETABILITY The device would have a good demand on the market. The prototype provides user-friendly means of control. The design of the prototype gives the user a backup control. V. The prototype is easy to use.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
APPENDIX B
USER’S MANUAL
I.

Introduction
The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is an electric or motorized wheelchair device

which provides new means of control a physically challenged individual’s mobility companion,
the wheelchair. This device uses hand movements or “gestures” for the wheelchair's control. It
also features an LCD screen connected to the wheelchair so that the movement status could
be seen clearly. A user manual will be provided to ensure that the users could get enough
information about the device. The manual will give them a better understanding of the device’s
capabilities. The user manual will also give warnings or safety reminders regarding the use of
this device.

II. Device Parts

91

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

92

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Description:

Controlling Module (Microcontroller) – the module which controls the flow of
information or data, as well as its evaluation or processing and execution.

Controller (Accelerometer) – the circuit which calculates the acceleration in the
user’s hand gestures or movements in order to be used as reference for 3d
positioning or direction.

LCD Module – it displays the information or status regarding the wheelchair’s
movements.

Motors – responsible for driving the wheels of the wheelchair by means of
applying rotational force on to it.

Motor Driver – responsible for manipulating or controlling the motor’s rotation.
It accepts input commands or signals coming from the controlling module to
manipulate the motors.

Toggle Switch – a switch was provided for emergency situations if ever the
system malfunctions during run time. Aside from that, the switch provides the
flow of power on to the circuit which means that it is the one responsible for
supplying power to the circuit in order to stop and start its operation.

Reclining Break – serves as the switch or manipulator for the reclining feature.

Assistive Handles – serves as handles for other persons in order to aid the
mobility of the user if ever the circuitry fails.

Extended Back Support – added in order to increase the support up to the
user’s head.

93

the forward direction movement is activated. INC. The stop or standby mode could also be initiated when the back of the hand/accelerometer’s angel of inclination is within the range of 40 degrees from either left or right directions and 10 degrees from either the upward or downward directions. Device Controls (Hand Movements)  Neutral Hand Position The neutral hand position indicates the standby or stop mode of the hand gesture controlled wheelchair. Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING III.  Forward Hand Movement When the back of the hand or the accelerometer is moved at a downward direction with an inclined angle movement of 91 to 130 degrees from the neutral hand position.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V.  Reverse Hand Movement 94 . V.

INC. The controller should reach at least 91 degrees of inclination from the neutral hand position and 120 degrees at most. 2. Soliven Avenue II. V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. The user could either use the strap provided or just hold the accelerometer or sensor. V. How to Use the Device Basic Operation 1. 95 . IV. The user must first sit on the wheelchair and then turn on the circuitry (refer to II for the position of the switch).  Right Turn Hand Movement The Right Turn Direction Movement of the hand gesture controlled wheelchair could be accessed by turning or moving the back of the hand/controller (accelerometer) on the right side direction and should at least attain 41 degrees of inclination from the neutral hand position and 170 degrees at most. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The reverse direction movement of the hand gesture controlled wheelchair could be triggered by moving the back of the hand or the accelerometer at an upward direction.  Left Turn Hand Movement The Left Turn Direction Movement of the hand gesture controlled wheelchair could be accessed by turning or moving the back of the hand/controller (accelerometer) on the left side direction and should at least attain 41 degrees of inclination from the neutral hand position and 170 degrees at most.

) 4. 4. the user or the assistant could let loose of or release the reclining break or trigger so that the wheelchair’s back could be locked on that position. it is recommend that an assistant should help him or her. Once the reclining trigger or break was pulled and hold. 3. Soliven Avenue II. It could now be noticed that the back support of the wheelchair could be moved. 5. The user must make a hand movement or move the sensor according to the movement conditions in order for the wheelchair to move in certain directions (refer to the image and instructions at III. If the user feels comfortable with the reclined position where he or she is in. then an assistant from behind must push the 96 . Take note that the wheelchair’s direction movement is proportionate to the sensor’s direction or positioning. V. The wheelchair will then start moving once the hand movement was made or the sensor was moved to that certain position. Again.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. the user or the assistant must first pull and hold the reclining trigger so that the wheelchair’s back is unlocked from position. The user or an assistant must pull and hold the reclining trigger or break that could be found at the right side arm rest of the wheelchair device. The user must first sit on to the wheelchair. If the user wanted to set the wheelchair’s back on to its original position or a different reclined position (in a position that is higher than the current reclined position). The Reclining Feature 1. INC. the user could start pushing the back of the wheelchair in backward direction. V. 2. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3.

the reclining trigger must again be release so that the wheelchair’s back is locked in place once more. 70 kgs.20" 16" 19. This device is not recommended to be used for/by: 1.20 km/h 50 kgs.5") Elevating Yes 15 . 6.60 kgs. Soliven Avenue II. Afterwards. Safety Reminders and Maintenance The hand gesture controlled wheelchair is a device which uses hand movements or gestures for control. Specifications Table Seat Width Seat Depth Seat-to-Floor Height Overall Width Overall Length Overall Height Front Wheel Size Rear Wheel Size Arm rests Leg rests Extended Neck-Head Support Speed (No Load) Weight Carry Limit Maximum Weight Carry Limit Controller Power Source Supply Life 16" .12 hrs. . V.28" 42" 50" 8" 24" Full length (9. Accelerometer (via Movements/Gestures) 12 V 32 Ah Approx. 97 . Individuals which have severe hand shakiness  Too much hand shakiness could trigger unwanted movements which could harm the user. 6 . INC. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING wheelchair’s back in forward (or upward) direction until the wheelchair’s back is in its original position or desired position.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. VI. V.5" 24" .

first one is the weight of individual and the second is the angle of the inclined surfaces. Due to this. In addition. If a much heavier individual used this wheelchair. If you had a lead acid battery charger. It is too dangerous to take the risk because it could severely hurt the user. the hand gesture controlled wheelchair does not require special calibration of parts or components.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Inclined surfaces and rocky roads or paths  There is no assurance that this wheelchair system could be able to carry an individual because it always depend on two factors. you could just 98 . that is charging the battery. As for maintenance. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. INC. 3. the maximum recommended weight is 70 kgs. the usage for such individuals is prohibited as it could hurt him or her or the people around him or her. Individuals which have mental illnesses  Mentally challenged individuals might not fully understand how the wheelchair’s system works. V. it is too dangerous to drive wheelchairs on main roads where heavy duty trucks are located so we discourage users to use this device for such purpose. Long distance travels  This wheelchair system is not designed for continuous or non-stop driving. Therefore it might not be able to withstand traveling long distances as the battery might run out of charge while the user is on the road. it might not function properly.  As of this moment. Although there is one thing that regularly needs to be done. 5. Soliven Avenue II. 4. Individuals exceeding the weight limit of 70 kgs. V.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. If you don’t have a lead acid battery charger. INC. Soliven Avenue II. you could go to the nearest automotive supplies and parts shop near your place and let them charge the battery for you which costs around P 30. V. 99 .00. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING charge this for about 30 minutes to 1 hour.

total_y = total_y + y_array[a].char b). a<s_rate. lcd. x_array[a] = (((int)buff[1]) << 8) | buff[0]. y = total_y/s_rate.2). a++){ readFrom(DEVICE. 16). total_z = total_z + z_array[a]. y. void readFrom(int device.150). int total_y = 0. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX C SOURCE CODES #include <Wire. void back_off(char a. delay(2000). V. byte address.begin(). y_array[a] = (((int)buff[3])<< 8) | buff[2]. } x = total_x/s_rate. byte val). int regAddress = 0x32. lcd. int total_z = 0. lcd. byte buff[TO_READ]. int E2 = 6. 8). lcd. OUTPUT). writeTo(DEVICE. Soliven Avenue II. void setup() { Wire. lcd. void turn_L(char a. y.0")).print("ON HOLD"). int x_array[s_rate]. writeTo(DEVICE. action(x. 0x2D. lcd. void writeTo(int device. void turn_R(char a.print(F("Controller V1. int z).1). int E1 = 5.char b). delay(5). } } void loop() { for (int a=0. byte buff[]).0.clear(). 100 . int y. for(int i=4. lcd.h> #define DEVICE (0x53) #define TO_READ (6) #define s_rate 5 #define u_limit_adv_stop_back_x 50 #define l_limit_adv_stop_back_x -50 #define u_limit_stop_y 100 #define l_limit_stop_y -100 #define u_limit_adv_y -180 #define l_limit_adv_y -270 #define u_limit_back_y 260 #define l_limit_back_y 180 #define u_limit_left_x 280 #define l_limit_left_x 150 #define u_limit_right_x -150 #define l_limit_right_x -280 #define ab_speed 255 #define t_speed 255 rgb_lcd lcd. TO_READ. void advance(char a. 0).h> #include <rgb_lcd. a++){ total_x = total_x + x_array[a].ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. int total_x = 0. writeTo(DEVICE.setCursor(0. int M2 = 7. } delay(50). buff).setRGB(0. byte address. V.char b).print("Current Mode"). void stop(). lcd.setCursor(0. int z_array[s_rate]. for (int a=0. INC.i++){ pinMode(i. 0x2D.begin(16. a<s_rate. z_array[a] = (((int)buff[5]) << 8) | buff[4]. void action(int x.i<=7.print(F("Wheel Chair")). int num. int M1 = 8. z. int x. z = total_z/s_rate.1). regAddress. z).char b). 0x2D. int y_array[s_rate]. delay(50). lcd.

} void action(int x.setCursor(0.setCursor(0. Wire. lcd. Wire.150. lcd.beginTransmission(device).LOW). //lcd.print("Moving Forward"). lcd. num).setRGB(0.print("Current Mode").read().a). ab_speed).write(val).print("Moving Backward").0.endTransmission().1).b).0).ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. ab_speed). } if (((y>l_limit_back_y)&&(y<u_limit_back_y))&& ((x>l_limit_adv_stop_back_x)&&(x<u_limit_a dv_stop_back_x))){ back_off(ab_speed. } } void stop(void){ digitalWrite(E1. int y.char b){ Wire. 101 .setRGB(150.beginTransmission(device). Wire. lcd.0.beginTransmission(device). Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING total_x = 0.LOW). int z){ if (((y<u_limit_stop_y)&&(y>l_limit_stop_y))&&( (x>l_limit_adv_stop_back_x)&&(x<u_limit_ad v_stop_back_x))){ stop(). int i = 0.clear(). t_speed).150).0).150.clear(). lcd. //lcd. Wire. //lcd. } void readFrom(int device.print("Moving Left").clear().1).setRGB(0.write(address).HIGH). } Wire. //lcd. lcd. } void advance(char a.setRGB(0.1).setCursor(0.150). lcd.clear(). lcd.print("ON HOLD"). Wire. lcd. INC. lcd.setRGB(0.0. Soliven Avenue II.1). lcd.endTransmission().print("Current Mode").char b){ analogWrite (E1. lcd. lcd.print("Current Mode").setCursor(0.setCursor(0.HIGH). i++.print("Current Mode"). digitalWrite(M1. lcd. byte buff[]) { Wire. Wire. digitalWrite(M2. total_y = 0. t_speed). lcd. byte address. total_z = 0.print("Current Mode"). lcd. //lcd.write(address). while(Wire.endTransmission(). } if (((y<u_limit_adv_y)&&(y>l_limit_adv_y))&&(( x>l_limit_adv_stop_back_x)&&(x<u_limit_ad v_stop_back_x))){ advance(ab_speed. V. lcd.1). } void back_off (char a.print("Moving Right"). V. } void writeTo(int device. lcd. digitalWrite(E2. } if ((x<u_limit_right_x)&&(x>l_limit_right_x)){ turn_L(t_speed. byte val) { Wire. lcd.available()){ buff[i] = Wire. analogWrite (E2.requestFrom(device. int num.clear(). byte address. lcd.0). } if ((x>l_limit_left_x)&&(x<u_limit_left_x)){ turn_R(t_speed.

LOW).b).LOW). digitalWrite(M2. } void turn_L (char a.char b){ analogWrite (E1.LOW). analogWrite (E2. V. Soliven Avenue II.HIGH). digitalWrite(M1. digitalWrite(M1. digitalWrite(M1.a). analogWrite (E2. analogWrite (E2. INC. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING analogWrite (E1. V. digitalWrite(M2. } 102 .a).b). } void turn_R (char a.HIGH).char b){ analogWrite (E1.LOW).a).b). digitalWrite(M2.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

00 1.00 Php 1.00 Php 795. V.00 Total Price Php 2.00 795.350. INC.00 1. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX D DESIGN PROJECT COSTS ESTIMATION Parts DC Motor Driver 2x15A LCD 16 x 2 Arduino Uno DC Motors 12V Lead Acid Battery 12V Manual Wheelchair Wheelchair’s Modification’s Costs Other Parts' Cost Php Php Php Php Php Php Price 2.00 5.500. Soliven Avenue II.00 Php 1.00 800.00 Php 800.00 2.00 1.00 Php 5.00 1.00 2.200.400.000.00 Php 4.00 Php 17.350.00 Php 1.500.00 1.375. V.720.00 Quantity 1.500.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.00 103 .375.

. .Passed the initial defense last August 9.Final Deliberation of the Proposed System (August 23. Christan Mark Raymundo.Approved the Project Proposal “Gesture Controlled Wheelchair” (But needs to specify what kind of gesture it is. Alvin Talledo. 2015) – Documents are subjected to change and re-evaluation before publishing 104 . .Presenting the Project Proposal last June 21.Conducted a survey (August 19. Mark Ale Project Participation / Accomplishments Materials / Design & Researcher Programming Documents Materials / Design & Researcher Remarks Good Good Good Good Tasks Completed . Soliven Avenue II. 2015) – Subjected to Re-defense due to prototype failure and Documents are subjected to change .Presented I/O and Data Flow Defense last July 16. Gonzales.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. 2015) . Edgardo Jr. So need to change the Title for the project to “Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair”) . V. INC.Submitted Documents for Final Scheduled Deliberation (August 22. .Title defense held at ICCT Colleges main campus (July 5. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX E DESIGN PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT Name Bernardo. 2015) . 2015. 2015.Completed 95% of the prototype and 100% of the system. 2015) . 2015..Passed the Final Re-Deliberation of the Proposed System (November 4. V.

Alvin Talledo. Mark Ale   Holiday/Seminar                            No Classes Due To Typhoon No Classes Due To Typhoon No Classes Due To Typhoon   Holiday                                                   Holiday 105 . Christan Mark Raymundo. INC. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Attendance Checking for the Whole Design Project Development Month of June 8 10 12 15 17 19 22 24 26 29 Month of July 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 20 22 24 27 29 31 Month of August 3 5 7 10 12 14 17 19 21 Bernardo. Edgardo Jr. Soliven Avenue II.                            Gonzales..ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V.

Soliven Avenue II. INC. V. V. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Project Work Breakdown Chart Preparation Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Submission of Project Proposal Submission of Title Project Approval for Title Project Data Gathering Chapter 1 Documents Chapter 2 Documents System Development Chapter 3 Documents Completed 20% of the system Completed 50% of the system Chapter 4 Documents Chapter 5 Documents Completed 100% of the system 106 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX F ORGANIZATIONAL FLOW CHART Programmer & Leader Christan Mark Gonzales Mark Ale Talledo HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR Materials/ Research Alvin Raymundo Documents Edgardo Bernardo Prototype Design 107 . V.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. V. Soliven Avenue II.

Marikina 2001 – 2007 SKILLS:    Proficient in windows based computer application Flexible and adaptable in all working conditions Good interpersonal skills 108 . Soliven Avenue II.com EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUD TERTIARY ICCT COLLEGESFOUNDATION INC. V.Mary Subd Nangka Marikina City Mobile Number: 0935-471-5288 Email-ad: Gonzales. GONZALES #4 Concepcion [email protected] Marikina 2007 – 2011 PRIMARY PEACEMAKER CHRISTIAN ACADEMY Nangka. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING Cainta. Rizal 2011 – Present SECONDARY PARANG HIGH SCHOOL Parang. St. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX G CURRICULUM VITAE CHRISTAN MARK E.

Amphitheater July 31.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. 2014  “Advancement in Electronics Technology” Excel First Review and Training Center R. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SEMINARS/TRAINING ATTENDED:  “Web Application Security. Amphitheater July 12. Amphitheater August 5. Network Security” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. 2015  “IBM 5 in 5” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc... 2015  “ADVANCEMENT IN WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.... V. 2015  “CCTV AND AIPHONE” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Manila June 12. Papa. 2015  “CLOUD” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater July 31. INC. Amphitheater July 31. Sampaloc. 2015  “CASIO FX-991 ES PLUS/FX-991EX” 109 . Amphitheater July 31. V. 2015  “What is a PH Engineer Doing Now?” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Soliven Avenue II.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Amphitheater August 5. 2015  “BIONICS (BIOMEDICAL ELECTRONICS)” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. 2015  “RASPBERRY PI” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. 2015 PERSONAL INFORMATION: NICKNAME AGE BIRTHDATE BIRTHPLACE GENDER CIVIL STATUS NATIONALITY RELIGION HEIGHT WEIGHT LANGUAGE SPOKEN : : : : : : : : : : : TAN 21 November 25. 1993 Marikina City MALE SINGLE FILIPINO Gospel 5’6 50Kgs TAGALOG. V. Amphitheater August 5. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater August 5. V. ENGLISH 110 .. 2015  “ANDROID MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater August 5.. INC. Soliven Avenue II.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ALVIN M. V. Rizal Mobile Number: 0929-802-4702 Email-ad: [email protected] Oriental Mindoro 2001 – 2007 WORKING EXPERIENCE: None 111 .ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC. Signal Corps Subd. Block 2. Oriental Mindoro 2007 – 2011 PRIMARY BAGONG BAYAN CENTRAL SCHOOL Bongabong.com EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUD TERTIARY ICCT COLLEGESFOUNDATION INC. Cainta. V. RAYMUNDO Lot 2. Rizal 2012 – Present MINDORO STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING Bongabong. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING Cainta. Oriental Mindoro 2011 – 2012 SECONDARY EASTERN MINDORO COLLEGE Bongabong. Soliven Avenue II.

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
SEMINARS/TRAINING ATTENDED:

“Web Application Security, Network Security”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
July 12, 2014

“Advancement in Electronics Technology”
Excel First Review and Training Center
R. Papa, Sampaloc, Manila
June 12, 2015

“IBM 5 in 5”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
July 31, 2015

“What is a PH Engineer Doing Now?”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
July 31, 2015

“CLOUD”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
July 31, 2015

“ADVANCEMENT IN WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
July 31, 2015

“CCTV AND AIPHONE”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
August 5, 2015

“CASIO FX-991 ES PLUS/FX-991EX”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
August 5, 2015

112

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

“RASPBERRY PI”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
August 5, 2015

“BIONICS (BIOMEDICAL ELECTRONICS)”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
August 5, 2015

“ANDROID MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT”
ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc., Amphitheater
August 5, 2015

PERSONAL INFORMATION:

NICKNAME
AGE
BIRTHDATE
BIRTHPLACE
GENDER
CIVIL STATUS
NATIONALITY
RELIGION
HIGHT
WEIGHT
LANGUAGE SPOKEN

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VIN
20
OCTOBER 2, 1995
BONGABONG, OR. MINDORO
MALE
SINGLE
FILIPINO
ROMAN CATHOLIC
5’7”
242 lbs.
TAGALOG, ENGLISH

113

ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION, INC.
V. V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

EDGARDO D. BERNARDO JR.

#93 Cambridge St. Cubao, Quezon City
Mobile No.: 0919-527-3678
E-mail Address: [email protected]
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary

Institute of Creative Computer Technology
Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering
2011-present
Cainta Main Campus

Associate

Datamex (Nova branch)
2007-2008
Under graduate

Secondary

Tala High School
2003-2007
Bo. San Isidro Tala, Caloocan City

Elementary

Tenejeros Malabon Elementary School
1996-2002
Malabon

SPECIAL SKILLS





Computer Literate
Networking
Troubleshooting (hardware and software)
Flexible
Fast Learner
Can work with a minimum supervision

114

Papa. 2015 115 . Amphitheater July 31. Soliven Avenue II. 2015  “CASIO FX-991 ES PLUS/FX-991EX” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater July 31. V. 2014  “Advancement in Electronics Technology” Excel First Review and Training Center R. Amphitheater August 5.. Network Security” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater July 12. 2015  “IBM 5 in 5” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater August 5. 2015  “CLOUD” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. 2015  “CCTV AND AIPHONE” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Manila June 12.. Amphitheater July 31.. Amphitheater July 31. Sampaloc. 2015  “What is a PH Engineer Doing Now?” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. 2015  “ADVANCEMENT IN WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SEMINARS ATTENDED  “Web Application Security.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V.. INC.

FILIPINO ROMAN CATHOLIC ENGLISH. TAGALOG 116 . 1988 MALE SINGLE 5’7 170 lbs. Amphitheater August 5. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  “RASPBERRY PI” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater August 5..ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. Soliven Avenue II. 2015 PERSONAL INFORMATION NICKNAME AGE BIRTHDAY GENDER CIVIL STATUS HEIGHT WEIGHT NATIONALITY RELIGION LANGUAGES/DIALECTS : : : : : : : : : : EDZ 27 YEARS OLD APRIL 1. INC. V. 2015  “ANDROID MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater August 5.. 2015  “BIONICS (BIOMEDICAL ELECTRONICS)” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.

V. Antipolo. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE COMPUTER ENGINEERING Cainta. 2014 117 . Rizal 2004 – 2008 PRIMARY MAYAMOT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Sumulong High way.com EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUD TERTIARY ICCT COLLEGESFOUNDATION INC. INC.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Rizal 1998 – 2004 WORKING EXPERIENCE: None SEMINARS/TRAINING ATTENDED:  “Web Application Security.. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MARK ALE P. Network Security” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Soliven Avenue II. Cupang Antipolo City Mobile Number: 0907-289-5089 Email-ad: talledo. Rizal 2008 – Present SECONDARY MAYAMOT NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL Sumulong High way. Antipolo. V. Amphitheater July 12. TALLEDO 57 Sitio [email protected]

Manila June 12. 2015  “BIONICS (BIOMEDICAL ELECTRONICS)” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater August 5. Amphitheater August 5.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. 2015  “What is a PH Engineer Doing Now?” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. 2015  “ADVANCEMENT IN WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc... 2015 118 . 2015  “CASIO FX-991 ES PLUS/FX-991EX” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. V. Amphitheater July 31. Soliven Avenue II. Sampaloc.. INC. 2015  “CCTV AND AIPHONE” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Papa. 2015  “CLOUD” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater August 5.. Amphitheater July 31.. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  “Advancement in Electronics Technology” Excel First Review and Training Center R. 2015  “RASPBERRY PI” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater July 31.. Amphitheater August 5.. 2015  “IBM 5 in 5” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc. Amphitheater July 31.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  “ANDROID MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT” ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.. Amphitheater August 5. ENGLISH 119 . INC. TAGALOG. Soliven Avenue II. V. 2015 PERSONAL INFORMATION: NICKNAME AGE BIRTHDATE BIRTHPLACE GENDER CIVIL STATUS NATIONALITY RELIGION HIGHT WEIGHT LANGUAGE SPOKEN : : : : : : : : : : : MARK 23 AUGUST 24. V. 1992 ANTIPOLO CITY MALE SINGLE FILIPINO ROMAN CATHOLIC 5’4” 136 lbs.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

INC. V. Soliven Avenue II. V. 120 . Our team member. The modifications with this equipment is about to start.. Mr.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPENDIX H DESIGN PROJECT PICTURES The wheels had been detached from the manual wheelchair. as is working towards the modification of the manual wheelchair device. Edgardo Bernardo Jr.

The Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair device’s body.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. V. INC. V. 121 . Soliven Avenue II. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Motors have been attached to the wheels of the mobility device.

Soliven Avenue II. 122 . INC. Alvin Raymundo. creates our documents on the background. Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair’s circuitry is being checked while I. Christan Mark Gonzales taking the picture. V. with our leader. Inside Mr. V. Mr. Mr. Mark Ale Talledo’s Tammarraw FX.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION.

123 . Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair The final deliberation of our design project have started with our leader. Christan Mark Gonzales discussing the introductory part. V. Soliven Avenue II. V. Mr.ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. INC.

Cainta Rizal COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Hand Gesture Controlled Wheelchair’s Demo Our Design Project Prototype. Soliven Avenue II. Team Gesture. V. V. INC. (Members(Left to Right): Mark Ale Talledo. Alvin Raymundo. along with our team..ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION. and Christan Mark Gonzales) 124 . The Hand Gesture Controlled. Edgardo Bernardo Jr.