Final Year Project Report

 Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  University of Dublin TRINITY COLLEGE Design of a NPR Interactive  3D Landmark Map of Dublin City  Joseph Farrell B.A. (Mod.) Computer Science Final Year Project May 2007 Supervisor: Dr. John Dingliana Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. 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Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Declaration I hereby declare that this thesis is, except where otherwise stated, entirely my own work an that it has not been submitted as an exercise for a degree at any other university. __________________________ _____________________ _____ May 8, 2007 Joseph Farrell Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor, John Dingliana, for providing me with the opportunity t pursue this project and for his support and guidance throughout the year. I would also like t thank my family and friends for their continued support and encouragement. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Abstract Non photorealistic rendering (NPR for short) has come to denote computer generated image and animations that are not a true to life representation of a scene. These renderings represen the scene in different methods, to convey the key information relevant to the viewer in reduced format that is easier to understand. NPR for the most part gives images and model the impression as though they were completed by hand. The main goal of this project was wa s to produce an interactive 3D Landmark map of Dublin City Various different NPR techniques were used to stylise the buildings and the map creating a aesthetically pleasing look. These techniques reduced the complexity of the building model whilst retaining their main characteristics. The map which was produced has overall less complexity and despite this the landmark buildings are more recognisable and the map as a whole is more comprehendible. This projec illustrates the value of NPR for the mapping of large geographic areas by applying it to the key landmarks of Dublin. An example of a hand painted non-photorealistic style map of th city of St. Petersburg illustrating this, can be seen in Figure 1. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Table of Contents Declaration.............................................. Declaration....................... .............................................. ............................................... ...............................................2 .......................2 Acknowledgements ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. ...................................3 ............3 Abstract........................................................... Abstract.................................... .............................................. .............................................. .......................................4 ................4 1. Introduction........................................ Introduction............................................................... ............................................... ...............................................9 .......................9 1.1 Objectives .............................................. ..................................................................... .............................................. .....................................10 ..............10 1.2 Chapter Guide ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. .................................11 ..........11 2. Background ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. .........................................12 ..................12 2.1 Non Photorealistic Rendering ........................................... .................................................................. .................................12 ..........12 2.2 A history of NPR ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. ............................. ...... 2.3 NPR Techniques ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. ............................. ...... 2.4 Motivations Moti vations ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. .....................................16 ..............16 2.5 Possible Uses ............................................. .................................................................... .............................................. .................................19 ..........19 3. Design ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. .............................................. ............................. ...... 3.1 Design Choice ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. .................................20 ..........20 Master your3.2semester with.............................................. Scribd .............................................. Tools .............................................. ....................... .............................................21 ......................21  Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  3.3 Workflow Plan ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. .................................22 ..........22 & The New York Times Useful Not useful   Cancel anytime. Special offer for students: $4.99/month. 3.4Only OpenGL.......................................... OpenGL................... .............................................. .............................................. .............................................23 ......................23   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  4.4 Additional Features..................... Features ............................................ .............................................. .............................................. ......................... .. 4.5 Optimisation................................ Optimisation....................................................... .............................................. .............................................. ......................... .. 5. Analysis ............................................ ................................................................... .............................................. .............................................. ......................... .. 5.1 Results......................................... Results................................................................ .............................................. .............................................. ......................... .. 5.2 Evaluation .............................................. ..................................................................... .............................................. .....................................40 ..............40 5.3 Problems Encountered .............................................. ..................................................................... .........................................41 ..................41 5.4 Lessons Learned......................................... Learned................................................................ .............................................. .................................42 ..........42 5.5 Future Work ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. .....................................42 ..............42 6. Summary.......................... Summary................................................. .............................................. .............................................. .........................................44 ..................44 6.1 Review ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. .............................................44 ......................44 6.2 Conclusion ............................................. .................................................................... .............................................. .....................................44 ..............44 Appendix A. CD Contents ............................................ .................................................................... .............................................45 .....................45 Appendix B. Application Screenshots ............................................. .................................................................... ......................... .. Appendix C. Code Listing Li sting ............................................ .................................................................... .............................................48 .....................48 Bibliography ........................................... .................................................................. .............................................. .............................................62 ......................62 Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In Join RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Table of Figures Figure 1: A hand painted NPR style map of Saint Petersburg (Russia) produced by Escape Travel Limited [EST 07].................................. Figure 2: View of a Mosque rendered used a varied screening algorithm [TSN02].......... [TSN02]...................... ....................... ...................... ...................... ....................... ....................... ...................... ........... Figure 3: Dublin City Hall rendered with solid silhouette outlines...................15 Figure 4: A map of the city of Plzen (Czech Republic) using image distortion [TSN 02]................... 02].............................. ...................... ....................... ....................... ...................... ...................... .............. ... Figure 5: Scientific Diagram illustrating the structure of Alveoli via both cross- section and an external view [WMD 07].........................................1 Figure 6: Collins Illustrated Map of Dublin using using NPR techniques techniques ................. ............ ..... Figure Figure 7: The Workflow Workflow Plan of this project project ...................... ................................. ....................... ..................2 ......2 Figure 8: Textured box box which is the rendered output from the file ‘Cube.obj’ Figure 9: Left raster base map image distorted due to zooming, Right vector map without without any distortion distortion ....................... .................................. ...................... ....................... ................2 ....2 Figure 10 Screenshot demonstrating the blended blocks of outer city...........29 Figure 11: Example of a heavily texture mapped building model rendered normally with with its Scribd texture (left), cel-shaded (centre) and pencil Master your semester  Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  shaded (right).................................................................................2 & The New York Times Useful Not useful   Figure A photoSpecial offer for students: Only12: $4.99/month. Cancel anytime. realistic rendering rendering of City Hall (Filesize: 1.6mb) 1.6mb) ............. Figure 13: A NPR rendering of City Hall with the texture filters (Filesize:0.9mb   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 20: Graph illustrating the performance of NPR against photo-realism in terms of average average frame-rate frame-rate ...................... ................................. ...................... ...................... .............. ... Figure 21: Application Screenshot 1 ......................... ............. ......................... .......................... ........................ ........... Figure 22: Application Screenshot 2 ......................... ............. ......................... .......................... ........................ ........... Figure 23: Application Screenshot 3 ......................... ............. ......................... .......................... ........................ ........... Figure 24: Application Screenshot 4 ......................... ............. ......................... .......................... ........................ ........... Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In Join RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Chapter 1 1. Introduction This project investigates Non Photorealistic Rendering (NPR for short) techniques and thei use in mapping. Based upon these techniques an application was developed to present a map of Dublin City. It creates images and animations which are not true to real life but stil representative of a specific scene. NPR is a broad area with many different rendering techniques but the main objective is to convey information. In the area of maps the intent o NPR is to omit unnecessary detail, focus attention on important characteristics, simply and clarify the image, remove any unambiguous details and show hidden parts. Traditionally computer graphics have been concerned with photorealism and creatin graphics and animations which look as true to life as possible. These have great application in film and games but when applied to mapping, these techniques create maps with excessiv detail. This in turn makes them hard to comprehend and less user-friendly. Photorealism i also heavy on resource for example the latest ‘Shrek the Third’ movie took up to 300 hours to render every single frame of the movie with a 3,000 processor server farm [SST 07]. A particular example of the value of NPR in the rendering of architectural buildings Master your semester with Scribd  can be Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  in the following reference [NPA 07]. If a photo-realistic image of a proposed building i & The NewseenYork Times Useful Not useful   Cancel anytime. shown as a$4.99/month. blueprint to clients the final building may be significantly different as changes ca Special offer for students: Only come from different building materials, on site building conditions, planning requirements   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 Download of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  The user does not need the ability to ‘read maps’ which some people have difficulty in doing Conventional tourist maps are the best example of this type of approach. Examples of whic are shown in Figures 1 and 6 of this report. It can be seen in these Figures how the landmarks are non-realistic renditions, but they still are easily noticeable. These types of maps have naturally used NPR techniques. NPR when applied to maps illustrates the main details while reducing its complexity, helpin to create a more comprehendible and easier to understand map. Direct images of the area suc as satellite images are too complex and provide too much detail for use. The key element i that the NPR maps are easier to comprehend, but despite their being less detail the main landmarks are still recognisable as they still retain their main features. 1.1 Objectives The aim of this project is to construct a functional interactive landmark map of Dublin city ( mile radius about O’Connell Bridge) illustrating the main landmark buildings. The key parts to building this map include the following: • Building a base vector map of Dublin City streets • Adding of street labels to this map • Adding semi-transparent city blocks to outer city • Investigating various different NPR techniques Stylising the building models using NPR techniques t echniques Master your semester with Scribd Building a fully functional user interface Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title & The New York Times  Useful  Not useful Adding features to find and highlight hi ghlight specific buildings • • • Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. • Cancel anytime. Creating a fully functional application incorporating all of the above.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  1.2 Chapter Guide Chapter 2: Background This Chapter is a review of the background material. This includes a review of non photorealistic rendering techniques and discusses their applications for the modelling of larg geographic scenes such as seen in this project. Chapter 3: Design This Chapter describes the selection of the rendering techniques and all the various othe design decisions and selections made throughout the course of the project. Chapter 4: Implementation This Chapter describes in detail the applying of NPR techniques to the buildings models, th creation of the vector map, design of the user interface and all other aspects of th implementation phase of the project. Chapter 5: Analysis This chapter is an analysis of the project in terms of overall performance and effectiveness The application is analysed based on frame rate performance and future developments for the application are also considered Chapter 6: Summary This chapter provides a summary of the project in which the key areas of the project are reviewed and any specific conclusions are drawn. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Chapter 2 2. Background 2.1 Non Photorealistic Rendering Research in computer graphics over the last number of decades has primarily been concerned with the creation of ever increasingly realistic graphics and animation. Non-photorealisti graphics has come to denote picture and animation in a way in which deviates from th physical reality of a scene. In effect non photorealistic graphics are not a true to lif representation of a scene. NPR has been described in the past as comprehensible rendering artistic rendering and non-realistic rendering, however of late it has come to be know predominantly under the term non-photorealistic rendering. 2.2 A history of NPR Master your semester with Scribd  Strassmann 1986 [SHB 86] and Sasada in 1987 [ANSRead 87].up These papers discussed variou Free For 30this Days Sign to vote on title  & The Newdifferent Yorkbrush Times useful  Useful  NotHowever stroke styles and computer generated natural sceneries. it was no NPR styles and techniques were probably first investigated in the mid 1980s in papers by Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime. until more recently in 1994 when this field was brought to the fore by two papers on   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  2.3 NPR Techniques There exists a wealth of NPR techniques that can be used to create and emulate NPR styles in computer graphics. The majority of which simulate natural artistic techniques. However, th results of these different techniques vary significantly from each other but all produc graphics and animations that are un-realistic. Some techniques are focused heavy on mimicking traditional human art like watercolour and hand sketches while others are focused on communicating their content information more effectively as seen in scientific and biolog diagrams. Other styles place more emphasis on the creation of an aesthetically pleased look like cartoon shading. There are numerous NPR techniques but the report will focus on those most relevant to th goal of this project. Pixel manipulation also commonly referred to as image processing o image filtering will be used in this project to manipulate the texture of the building models This process involves the manipulation of the pixel elements of a 2D image. It can be ofte applied after a model or animation is rendered. In this particular incident it will be applied t the texture of the model before rendering. Common NPR methods such as shading will not b used as they would be ineffective for the heavily textured mapped models being used in thi application. Texture filters can produce numerous effects such as greyscale, blurring stippling, screening and colour, brightness or contrast manipulations. All of these technique are applied using different algorithms. An interesting example of screening algorithm can b screen in Figure 2. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In Join RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 2: View of a Mosque rendered used a varied screening algorithm [TSN 02] To complement the image filtering silhouette outlines are added to the buildings models t add emphasis and add to their NPR style. Outlines are commonly used in NPR to mimic hand drawn sketch styles. Hand drawn styles tend to have so called ‘incorrect outlines’ which var in straightness, length, thickness and brightness. NPR rendering algorithms which ad outlines to models vary the values of the incorrectness based on the required output style Other algorithms render the outline based upon brush stoke to achieve painted styles. Outlin rendering is generally combined with cel-shading c el-shading to achieve most NPR styles. For this projec a combination of heavy solid outlines and image filter is textured to achieve a style which Master your semester with Scribd  Read For 30this Days Sign up to vote on title reduces complexity but increases recognition. An example ofFree City Hall rendered with  solid & The Newblack York Times Useful  Not useful outlines and no textures can be seen in Figure 3.  Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime.   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 3: Dublin City Hall rendered with solid silhouette outlines Image distortion is another technique used to achieve NPR look. Traditional representation by hand tend for the most part not to be to the exact scale. These various scales in traditiona hand drawn images tended to result in the more important aspects being drawn larger. Thi has developed into a way in which to communicate a scene more effectively. Scaling has particular relevance to landmark maps, as the larger a building is drawn the more importanc it has to the viewer. An advanced image distortion can be seen in Figure 4. Different scalin is applied in the project to add importance to landmarks and to help communicate the map’ information more comprehensively. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 4: A map of the city of Plzen (Czech Republic) using image distortion [TSN 02] 2.4 Motivations Master your semester with Scribd NPR came initially from a motivation to follow and emulate human processwhich a Read Free Forartistic 30this Days Sign up to vote on title  & The NewitsYork Useful Not useful roots hasTimes an incentive to convey content information more effectively. As a result of this   Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime. the most part of NPR styles generate effects that appear as though they were completed b   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 5: Scientific Diagram illustrating the structure of Alveoli via both cross-section and a external view [WMD 07] It has now been shown that the different NPR effects can be achieved by various renderin techniques. Now the reasons for the use of NPR in this project can be discussed. NPR ha number of advantages which are further relevant to map representations. The sole purpose o maps is to convey information and as NPR aids this communication it is straightforward to see NPR’s value. Over the centuries NPR has been used and developed upon in maps. It seems as though thi has happened purely on intuition as maps try to covey so much information in such a smal space. The details and complexity in maps has been reduced to make maps more Master your semester with Scribd  thes comprehendible and make landmarks more recognisable. It is only natural to take Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  replicate them in computer generated rendering and continue to develop upon & The Newtechniques York and Times Useful Not useful   Cancel anytime. Special offer for students: $4.99/month. them Only further. In Figure 6 we can see a Landmark map of Dublin in which NPR is used.   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document Master your semester with Scribd Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title Figure 6: Collins Illustrated Map of Dublin using NPR techniques & The New York Times  Useful  Not useful Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime.      Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  2.5 Possible Uses The resultant program from this project and the techniques used to achieve this have severa possible uses. The application itself with further development would be a useful tool for path finding and to help guide tourists around Dublin City. The techniques used to achieve th NPR stylised building models would be useful for other mapping applications such Googl Maps [GMW 07]. It should also be noted that Google Earth uses some simple NPR techniques and some interesting features but the rendering is very basic. The reduced processing requirements if coupled with more advanced culling would make thi application valuable for mobile devices and PDA. The application could even be ported t OpenGL ES [OES 07] which is a tailored version of OpenGL for mobile devices Furthermore the building models could be valuable if used on GPS navigation systems. In al in this project and its research have many benefits for future development. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Chapter 3 3. Design Throughout the project a number of design choices needed to be made. When this occurred al available choices were examined and evaluated and the best solution was chosen. An exampl of this is the selection of which file format to use for storage of the building models. In thi case different file formats were examined and various different loaders for each of the format were investigated. 3ds the standard 3DS Max file format was examined, but this produce larger model sizes and varied greatly from version to version. OBJ Alias Wavefront forma [OBJ 07] was the selected format, as it was the simplest to implement, stable (doesn’t chang structure from version to version like 3DS) and the available loaders were easily availabl within Trinity College. 3.1 Design Choice For the creation of the map, it was decided that the same file format as the buildings model was used. This had the advantage that the means for loading this file format was alread present and a vector image could be converted to this format. The decision to use Adob Illustrator to create the map was made as the AI file could be easy exported to a format fo Master your semester with Scribd  to a 3D loading into OpenGL. It was easier to work in a 2D environment in on AI as opposed Read Free For 30this Days Sign up to vote title  & The Newenvironment York Times Useful Not useful in 3DS Max because the basic structure of a map is two dimensional.  Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime.   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  3.2 Tools The application was programmed in C++ using OpenGL. OpenGL is the most widely used and supported graphics API [OGL 07]. OpenGL was required for the creation of the 2D and 3D graphics components of application. OpenGL is supported on every major operating system and is compliant with most programming languages. This provides the advantage tha the final application is platform independent. C++ was chosen to code the project as it is th most commonly used language in conjunction with OpenGL. This language provides all th necessary function to access the library and doesn’t limit its performance. The application was compiled and programmed using Microsoft Visual Studio .net 200 [MVS 03]. All coding of the application was my own work except were some minor element were built upon and used previous work. The OBJ model loader [OBJM 07] class was use with permission from John Hamill (ISG group TCD). Some common graphics algorithm have been used and adapted for this application and they are referenced when discussed in th implementation chapter. Adobe Illustrator was also used for the creation of the vector map. Various differen commercial applications for converting from a raster to a vector map were also tried howeve theses all failed to produce a quality vector map. The building models were mostly taken from the Virtual Dublin Project by the ISG group i Master your semester with Scribd  trinity. Some alterations were made to these models using 3DS Max [3DS 07] which is Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  package for the creation and editingofUseful 3D models. Deep Exploration a & The Newpopular Yorksoftware Times Not useful  Cancel anytime. Special offer for students: Onlyfor $4.99/month. program export to and from various 3D file formats was used to the building and map   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 Download of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  3.3 Workflow Plan Figure 7: The Workflow Plan of this project The main work of this project was broken into a number of stages as illustrated in Figure 3 above. 1. Firstly various different NPR techniques were investigated and then these wer applied to the building models. 2. A vector base map was created using a number of tools. 3. Both the vector map and the NPR styled buildings were then brought together int one functional application. 4. A user interface was designed and built on top of this. 5. A number of functional features were then added. Master your 6.semester with Scribd  The application was then debugged and analyzed for up optimal performance. Read Free For 30this Days Sign to vote on title  & The New York Times Useful Not useful   Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime. The project was initially broken into these stages to help organise and plan the projec   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload Join RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 Download of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  3.4 OpenGL OpenGL is an event driven multi-platform graphics API [OGL07]. OpenGL is supported on every major operating system and is compliant with most programming languages. It is software interface to a graphics system implemented in hardware or software. This interfac consists of in excess of 120 distinct commands, which can be used to specify the objects an operations needed to produce interactive three-dimensional graphics applicati ons. The interface consists of the following three libraries [OGG 07]. • The GL library is the core OpenGL system and is primarily concerned with modelling, viewing, lighting, clipping aspects. • The GLU library (GL Utility) simplifies common tasks and is used for the creation of common objects (spheres, quadrics) and the specification of standard views (e.g. perspective, orthographic). • The GLUT library (GL Utility Toolkit) provides an interface with the windowing system to allow window management, menus and other mouse interaction. OpenGL is interactive and works in an event driven fashion continuously waiting for and handling interactions from the user. Interactions are handled by what is known as the glu event loop. An application must register handlers (or call-back functions) which are called upon, the occurrence of a particular event. Such events include a mouse button press, mous motion, timer, window resize or redraw. Master your semester with Scribd Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title To add handlers for events we register a call-back function as follows: & The New York Times  Useful  Not useful Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. // Function to deal with key press glutKeyboardFunc( GlutKeyboard ); Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print 1 Download For the final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 of 64 glutKeyboardFunc   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  the value of the key variable is the ASCII code of the key hit an the value of x and y are the coordinates of the mouse position within the window at th moment when the key was hit. 3.5 Models The building models used in the application were for the most part taken from Virtual Dublin which is a real-time urban simulation of Dublin city developed by the Interaction, Simulatio and Graphics Lab (ISG) with in Trinity [VDUB07]. Some building models from the Googl SketchUp 3D Warehouse were tested, but proved to be of too low quality for inclusion in th final application. These models are in Alias Wavefront OBJ file format [OBJ 07] which is a commonly used format for the storing of polygonal 3D models. The file format is text based consisting o lines of data. Each line of data started with a keyword such as v for vertex or vn for the vertex normals which defined the data which followed. The following is an example of a simple OB file which defines a cube and maps a texture to its faces. # # Wavefront OBJ file # Cube.obj # mtllib ./Cube.mtl g # object Box01 v -8.091908 0.000000 8.556394 Master your semester with Scribd v 11.908092 0.000000 8.556394 -8.091908 0.000000 -11.443606 & The Newvv York Times 11.908092 0.000000 -11.443606 v -8.091908 20.000000 8.556394 Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. v 11.908092 20.000000 8.556394 Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 Download vn vn vn vn vn vn vn vn # 8 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 vertex normals g Box01 usemtl Map_Material s f s f s f s f s f s f # 2 4/11/4 2/9/2 1/10/1 3/12/3 4 8/12/8 7/11/7 5/9/5 6/10/6 8 6/8/6 5/7/5 1/5/1 2/6/2 16 8/4/8 6/3/6 2/1/2 4/2/4 32 7/8/7 8/7/8 4/5/4 3/6/3 64 5/4/5 7/3/7 3/1/3 1/2/1 6 faces G The structure of the OBJ file format can be seen above listed file Cube.obj. It can be seen tha any line preceded by ‘#’ is a comment. Similarly the file lists the cubes vertices (v), textur vertices (vt) and vertex normal (vn). The shapes box01 sides (s) and faces (f) are then declared using the Map_Material as declared in the material library (mtllib) called ‘Cube.mtl which can be seen below. # Master your semester with Scribd # Wavefront material file & The New## Cube.mtl York Times newmtl Special offer for students: OnlyMap_Material $4.99/month. Ka 0.5882 0.5882 0.5882 Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  The above two files when rendered in OpenGL resulted in the textured cube in Figure 8. It i relatively easy to see how this file format could be used to define the more complex building models as seen later in the report. Figure 8: Textured box which is the rendered output from the file ‘Cube.obj’ Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Chapter 4 4. Implementation This chapter examines in detail the execution and the workings of the design as it wa outlined previously in the previous chapter. The completion of the map, the buildings and the user interface are discussed. Also the adding of some further features and the optimisation o the code is examined in detail. 4.1 Map Initially it was attempted to use a matrix of raster images to represent the base map. I immediately became apparent that this approach would not be successful as the raster image lost their quality when zooming in or out. Another approach was tested where the raste images were swapped with high resolution images when zooming in. This proved difficult t smoothly implement and was wasteful of resources as the high resolution image dramatically increased in size. To avoid the quality loss of the raster images a vector map was required. To produce thi vector map various applications for conversion from a raster to a vector file format f ormat were tried Master your semester with Scribd  Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  every one produced substandard maps. The only effective approach to achieve & The Newnevertheless York Times Useful Not useful   quality vector map was to manually trace the map. Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime.   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Upload Sign In RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 9: Left raster base map image distorted due to zooming, Right vector map without an distortion Street labels were added to the map using Glut stroke characters. The text for the label an details of the translations and rotations were stored in a text based file. These details were then loaded into local memory of the program and the labels were then positioned based o these. The positioning variables in this text file can be updated and additional labels added through the positioning application which is i s discussed further in the positioning section. After placing the main landmarks on the map some of the other regions appeared to lack details due to being two dimensional. As a result certain elements of the maps OBJ file wer edited in 3DS Max to create raised blocks to represent irrelevant buildings on the outer edge of the map. Blending with code wasScribd a then applied to the map in the application to make these Master your semester  Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  appear semi-transparent, so as not to take from the maps important landmarks. In & The Newblocks York Times Useful Not useful   Figure 10 the result of this can be seen more clearly. Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Cancel anytime.   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Figure 10 Screenshot demonstrating the blended blocks of outer city 4.2 Buildings It was apparent from early research that the classic NPR rendering styles would not achieve an effective style. As you can seen in figure 11 where some classic NPR shader’s have been applied to a building model from the Virtual Dublin project [VDUB 05]. These results prove unsatisfactory as the models are heavily reliant on the detail contained in the textures and thi detail was lost with these NPR techniques. It was made clear from this that this project woul Master your semester with Scribd  have to focus on a different approach. A decision was made totouse a on combination of textur Read Free For 30this Days Sign up vote title  & The Newfiltering YorkandTimes Useful Not useful outlining, this kept the necessary detail from the textures whilst still achieving a   Cancel anytime. Special offer for students: Only NPR $4.99/month. effective style. The following sections delve more deeply into how exactly this wa   Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Join  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  Prior to proceeding with the texture filtering filt ering some additional alterations were also made to th models. The first of these was polygon reduction. This involved the manipulation of th models using 3DS Max. As these models were intended to be photorealistic some contained excessive detail. Reducing the polygon count of the models reduced this detail sufficiently This alteration both aided the NPR style and the reduction of the size of the model. Als texture sizes were reduced by 50% using the batch conversion tool of Adobe Photoshop. Thi was also needed as these models were initially intended to be photorealistic and the high resolution of these textures was not necessary for this application. 4.2.1 Texture Filtering Various different algorithms were applied to the textures of the models to achieve an effectiv NPR style. These algorithms were adapted from previous work [IMP 07] and were used fo increasing contrast, increasing brightness and greyscale conversion. An example of the photo realistic buildings from which work began can be seen in Figure 12 below. Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month. Read Free Foron 30this Days Sign up to vote title  Useful  Not useful Cancel anytime.     Home  Saved  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.  Upload Sign In Read Free For 30 Days Cancel anytime. Join   Search  Home  Saved 16K views  13  Sign In Upload Join RELATED TITLES 0 Final Year Project Report Uploaded by joe2farrell  Books  Audiobooks  Magazines  News  Documents  Sheet Music  Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City...     Save Embed Share Print Download final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 1 of 64   Final Year Project Report mechanical engg. minor project  Search document  // Manipulate the image data converting to greyscale for(int pixel=0; pixel < numPixels*bytesInPixel; for( pixel+=bytesInPixel){ imageData[pixel]=(imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; imageData[pixel+1]=(imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; imageData[pixel+2]=imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; } Secondly this algorithm manipulates all the pixels increasing the value of all elements by a se value. Testing of different values for this variable shown £% giving the optimal output. Thi resulted in an increase in brightness of the image from its previous state. // setup variables for brightness manipulation int light = 35; int Light_transform[256]; for(i=0;i255) Light_transform[i]=255; if(Light_transform[i]
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University of Dublin

TRINITY COLLEGE

Design of a NPR Interactive 3D Landmark Map of Dublin City

Joseph Farrell B.A. (Mod.) Computer Science Final Year Project May 2007 Supervisor: Dr. John Dingliana

School of Computer Science and Statistics O’Reilly Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland

Declaration

I hereby declare that this thesis is, except where otherwise stated, entirely my own work and that it has not been submitted as an exercise for a degree at any other university.

__________________________ May 8, 2007 Joseph Farrell

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my supervisor, John Dingliana, for providing me with the opportunity to pursue this project and for his support and guidance throughout the year. I would also like to thank my family and friends for their continued support and encouragement.

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Abstract
Non photorealistic rendering (NPR for short) has come to denote computer generated images and animations that are not a true to life representation of a scene. These renderings represent the scene in different methods, to convey the key information relevant to the viewer in a reduced format that is easier to understand. NPR for the most part gives images and models the impression as though they were completed by hand.

The main goal of this project was to produce an interactive 3D Landmark map of Dublin City. Various different NPR techniques were used to stylise the buildings and the map creating an aesthetically pleasing look. These techniques reduced the complexity of the building models whilst retaining their main characteristics.

The map which was produced has overall less complexity and despite this the landmark buildings are more recognisable and the map as a whole is more comprehendible. This project illustrates the value of NPR for the mapping of large geographic areas by applying it to the key landmarks of Dublin. An example of a hand painted non-photorealistic style map of the city of St. Petersburg illustrating this, can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1: A hand painted NPR style map of Saint Petersburg (Russia) produced by Escape Travel Limited [EST 07]

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Table of Contents

Declaration....................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................3 Abstract.........................................................................................................................4 1. Introduction..............................................................................................................9 1.1 Objectives ..........................................................................................................10 1.2 Chapter Guide ....................................................................................................11 2. Background ............................................................................................................12 2.1 Non Photorealistic Rendering ............................................................................12 2.2 A history of NPR ...............................................................................................12 2.3 NPR Techniques ................................................................................................13 2.4 Motivations ........................................................................................................16 2.5 Possible Uses .....................................................................................................19 3. Design ......................................................................................................................20 3.1 Design Choice ....................................................................................................20 3.2 Tools ..................................................................................................................21 3.3 Workflow Plan ...................................................................................................22 3.4 OpenGL..............................................................................................................23 3.5 Models................................................................................................................24 4. Implementation ......................................................................................................27 4.1 Map ....................................................................................................................27 4.2 Buildings ............................................................................................................29 4.2.1 Texture Filtering .........................................................................................30 4.2.2 Silhouetting .................................................................................................32 4.2.3 Positioning ..................................................................................................33 4.3 Graphical User Interface ....................................................................................34

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4.4 Additional Features ............................................................................................35 4.5 Optimisation.......................................................................................................38 5. Analysis ...................................................................................................................39 5.1 Results................................................................................................................39 5.2 Evaluation ..........................................................................................................40 5.3 Problems Encountered .......................................................................................41 5.4 Lessons Learned.................................................................................................42 5.5 Future Work .......................................................................................................42 6. Summary.................................................................................................................44 6.1 Review ...............................................................................................................44 6.2 Conclusion .........................................................................................................44 Appendix A. CD Contents.........................................................................................45 Appendix B. Application Screenshots ......................................................................46 Appendix C. Code Listing .........................................................................................48 Bibliography ...............................................................................................................62

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Table of Figures

Figure 1: A hand painted NPR style map of Saint Petersburg (Russia) produced by Escape Travel Limited [EST 07]..................................4 Figure 2: View of a Mosque rendered used a varied screening algorithm [TSN02]..........................................................................................14 Figure 3: Dublin City Hall rendered with solid silhouette outlines...................15 Figure 4: A map of the city of Plzen (Czech Republic) using image distortion [TSN 02].........................................................................................16 Figure 5: Scientific Diagram illustrating the structure of Alveoli via both crosssection and an external view [WMD 07].........................................17 Figure 6: Collins Illustrated Map of Dublin using NPR techniques .................18 Figure 7: The Workflow Plan of this project ...................................................22 Figure 8: Textured box which is the rendered output from the file ‘Cube.obj’ 26 Figure 9: Left raster base map image distorted due to zooming, Right vector map without any distortion .............................................................28 Figure 10 Screenshot demonstrating the blended blocks of outer city...........29 Figure 11: Example of a heavily texture mapped building model rendered normally with its texture (left), cel-shaded (centre) and pencil shaded (right).................................................................................29 Figure 12: A photo- realistic rendering of City Hall (Filesize: 1.6mb) .............30 Figure 13: A NPR rendering of City Hall with the texture filters (Filesize:0.9mb) .......................................................................................................32 Figure 14: City hall with both texture filter and silhouettes code applied........33 Figure 15: A screen shot of the graphical user interface................................35 Figure 16: Central Bank (left) and the Trinity Campanile (right) rendered using silhouette outlines and without textures .........................................36 Figure 17: The selection of buildings to be highlighted or found ....................36 Figure 18: A screenshot of finding and highlight a specific building ...............37 Figure 19: Application screenshot illustrating frame rate counter display ......38 7

Figure 20: Graph illustrating the performance of NPR against photo-realism in terms of average frame-rate ..........................................................40 Figure 21: Application Screenshot 1 ..............................................................46 Figure 22: Application Screenshot 2 ..............................................................46 Figure 23: Application Screenshot 3 ..............................................................47 Figure 24: Application Screenshot 4 ..............................................................47

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Chapter 1

1. Introduction
This project investigates Non Photorealistic Rendering (NPR for short) techniques and their use in mapping. Based upon these techniques an application was developed to present a map of Dublin City. It creates images and animations which are not true to real life but still representative of a specific scene. NPR is a broad area with many different rendering techniques but the main objective is to convey information. In the area of maps the intent of NPR is to omit unnecessary detail, focus attention on important characteristics, simply and clarify the image, remove any unambiguous details and show hidden parts.

Traditionally computer graphics have been concerned with photorealism and creating graphics and animations which look as true to life as possible. These have great applications in film and games but when applied to mapping, these techniques create maps with excessive detail. This in turn makes them hard to comprehend and less user-friendly. Photorealism is also heavy on resource for example the latest ‘Shrek the Third’ movie took up to 300 hours to render every single frame of the movie with a 3,000 processor server farm [SST 07].

A particular example of the value of NPR in the rendering of architectural buildings can be seen in the following reference [NPA 07]. If a photo-realistic image of a proposed building is shown as a blueprint to clients the final building may be significantly different as changes can come from different building materials, on site building conditions, planning requirements. These changes can cause the actual building when completed to look very different from the initial image of the building and this can come as quite a shock and lead to angry clients. If NPR is used to generate an image of the building the clients will accept that the design phase of the building is not complete and accept on-site changes to the building as required.

Compared to conventional maps which are simply based on street names and text, NPR landmark maps provide many benefits. The user of the map can recognise landmarks and key buildings immediately and requests can be made to highlight a particular building or service. The building can then be rendered in a different technique to make it instantly recognisable.

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The user does not need the ability to ‘read maps’ which some people have difficulty in doing. Conventional tourist maps are the best example of this type of approach. Examples of which are shown in Figures 1 and 6 of this report. It can be seen in these Figures how the landmarks are non-realistic renditions, but they still are easily noticeable. These types of maps have naturally used NPR techniques.

NPR when applied to maps illustrates the main details while reducing its complexity, helping to create a more comprehendible and easier to understand map. Direct images of the area such as satellite images are too complex and provide too much detail for use. The key element is that the NPR maps are easier to comprehend, but despite their being less detail the main landmarks are still recognisable as they still retain their main features.

1.1 Objectives
The aim of this project is to construct a functional interactive landmark map of Dublin city (5 mile radius about O’Connell Bridge) illustrating the main landmark buildings. The key parts to building this map include the following: • • • • • • • • • Building a base vector map of Dublin City streets Adding of street labels to this map Adding semi-transparent city blocks to outer city Investigating various different NPR techniques Stylising the building models using NPR techniques Building a fully functional user interface Adding features to find and highlight specific buildings Creating a fully functional application incorporating all of the above. Optimise this application for best performance

A further objective of the project was to complete the above functionality while keeping the frame rate high and keeping a high quality of experience of the map. This involves ensuring that the image quality for all levels of zoom or angle of view is consistent and that the frame rate is high so that the map is responsive to user commands such as pan and rotation manoeuvres around the map.

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1.2 Chapter Guide
Chapter 2: Background This Chapter is a review of the background material. This includes a review of nonphotorealistic rendering techniques and discusses their applications for the modelling of large geographic scenes such as seen in this project.

Chapter 3: Design This Chapter describes the selection of the rendering techniques and all the various other design decisions and selections made throughout the course of the project.

Chapter 4: Implementation This Chapter describes in detail the applying of NPR techniques to the buildings models, the creation of the vector map, design of the user interface and all other aspects of the implementation phase of the project.

Chapter 5: Analysis This chapter is an analysis of the project in terms of overall performance and effectiveness. The application is analysed based on frame rate performance and future developments for the application are also considered

Chapter 6: Summary This chapter provides a summary of the project in which the key areas of the project are reviewed and any specific conclusions are drawn.

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Chapter 2

2. Background
2.1 Non Photorealistic Rendering
Research in computer graphics over the last number of decades has primarily been concerned with the creation of ever increasingly realistic graphics and animation. Non-photorealistic graphics has come to denote picture and animation in a way in which deviates from the physical reality of a scene. In effect non photorealistic graphics are not a true to life representation of a scene. NPR has been described in the past as comprehensible rendering, artistic rendering and non-realistic rendering, however of late it has come to be known predominantly under the term non-photorealistic rendering.

2.2 A history of NPR
NPR styles and techniques were probably first investigated in the mid 1980s in papers by Strassmann 1986 [SHB 86] and Sasada in 1987 [ANS 87]. These papers discussed various different brush stroke styles and computer generated natural sceneries. However it was not until more recently in 1994 when this field was brought to the fore by two papers on generality and underlying principles. These papers by Winkenbach et al [WNB 94] and by Salisbury et al [SAL 94] were presented at SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques) 1994 and illustrated the generality of the various different NPR techniques; bringing together previously separate research into this new field of NPR. Since 1994 research in this are has flourished and there currently exists approximately 7,000 scholarly papers on the topic [GSN 07].

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2.3 NPR Techniques

There exists a wealth of NPR techniques that can be used to create and emulate NPR styles in computer graphics. The majority of which simulate natural artistic techniques. However, the results of these different techniques vary significantly from each other but all produce graphics and animations that are un-realistic. Some techniques are focused heavy on mimicking traditional human art like watercolour and hand sketches while others are focused on communicating their content information more effectively as seen in scientific and biology diagrams. Other styles place more emphasis on the creation of an aesthetically pleased look, like cartoon shading.

There are numerous NPR techniques but the report will focus on those most relevant to the goal of this project. Pixel manipulation also commonly referred to as image processing or image filtering will be used in this project to manipulate the texture of the building models. This process involves the manipulation of the pixel elements of a 2D image. It can be often applied after a model or animation is rendered. In this particular incident it will be applied to the texture of the model before rendering. Common NPR methods such as shading will not be used as they would be ineffective for the heavily textured mapped models being used in this application. Texture filters can produce numerous effects such as greyscale, blurring, stippling, screening and colour, brightness or contrast manipulations. All of these techniques are applied using different algorithms. An interesting example of screening algorithm can be screen in Figure 2.

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Figure 2: View of a Mosque rendered used a varied screening algorithm [TSN 02]

To complement the image filtering silhouette outlines are added to the buildings models to add emphasis and add to their NPR style. Outlines are commonly used in NPR to mimic hand drawn sketch styles. Hand drawn styles tend to have so called ‘incorrect outlines’ which vary in straightness, length, thickness and brightness. NPR rendering algorithms which add outlines to models vary the values of the incorrectness based on the required output style. Other algorithms render the outline based upon brush stoke to achieve painted styles. Outline rendering is generally combined with cel-shading to achieve most NPR styles. For this project a combination of heavy solid outlines and image filter is textured to achieve a style which reduces complexity but increases recognition. An example of City Hall rendered with solid black outlines and no textures can be seen in Figure 3.

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Figure 3: Dublin City Hall rendered with solid silhouette outlines

Image distortion is another technique used to achieve NPR look. Traditional representations by hand tend for the most part not to be to the exact scale. These various scales in traditional hand drawn images tended to result in the more important aspects being drawn larger. This has developed into a way in which to communicate a scene more effectively. Scaling has a particular relevance to landmark maps, as the larger a building is drawn the more importance it has to the viewer. An advanced image distortion can be seen in Figure 4. Different scaling is applied in the project to add importance to landmarks and to help communicate the map’s information more comprehensively.

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Figure 4: A map of the city of Plzen (Czech Republic) using image distortion [TSN 02]

2.4 Motivations
NPR came initially from a motivation to follow and emulate human artistic process which at its roots has an incentive to convey content information more effectively. As a result of this, the most part of NPR styles generate effects that appear as though they were completed by hand. Examples of such renderings would include watercolour and sketch rendering which closely mimic an artists hand painted style.

There are other non-photorealistic techniques which attempt to emphasise particular elements of a scene, with an overall goal to increase the viewer’s knowledge and understanding of the particular scene. These techniques are used regularly by technical, scientific and medical illustrators. An example such a technique can be seen in Figure 5, which is a NPR rendering of a biological organ. It is easy to see that this representation conveys more information than a realistic interpretation would.

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Figure 5: Scientific Diagram illustrating the structure of Alveoli via both cross-section and an external view [WMD 07]

It has now been shown that the different NPR effects can be achieved by various rendering techniques. Now the reasons for the use of NPR in this project can be discussed. NPR has number of advantages which are further relevant to map representations. The sole purpose of maps is to convey information and as NPR aids this communication it is straightforward to see NPR’s value.

Over the centuries NPR has been used and developed upon in maps. It seems as though this has happened purely on intuition as maps try to covey so much information in such a small space. The details and complexity in maps has been reduced to make maps more comprehendible and make landmarks more recognisable. It is only natural to take these techniques and replicate them in computer generated rendering and continue to develop upon them further. In Figure 6 we can see a Landmark map of Dublin in which NPR is used.

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Figure 6: Collins Illustrated Map of Dublin using NPR techniques

The NPR styles not only reduce the detail and complexity of the map but in addition reduce the amount of processing power and memory required. This is a positive situation as the buildings are more recognisable and the map is more user-friendly whilst the performance of the application is also increased.

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2.5 Possible Uses
The resultant program from this project and the techniques used to achieve this have several possible uses. The application itself with further development would be a useful tool for path finding and to help guide tourists around Dublin City. The techniques used to achieve the NPR stylised building models would be useful for other mapping applications such Google Maps [GMW 07]. It should also be noted that Google Earth uses some simple NPR techniques and some interesting features but the rendering is very basic.

The reduced processing requirements if coupled with more advanced culling would make this application valuable for mobile devices and PDA. The application could even be ported to OpenGL ES [OES 07] which is a tailored version of OpenGL for mobile devices. Furthermore the building models could be valuable if used on GPS navigation systems. In all in this project and its research have many benefits for future development.

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Chapter 3
3. Design
Throughout the project a number of design choices needed to be made. When this occurred all available choices were examined and evaluated and the best solution was chosen. An example of this is the selection of which file format to use for storage of the building models. In this case different file formats were examined and various different loaders for each of the formats were investigated. 3ds the standard 3DS Max file format was examined, but this produced larger model sizes and varied greatly from version to version. OBJ Alias Wavefront format [OBJ 07] was the selected format, as it was the simplest to implement, stable (doesn’t change structure from version to version like 3DS) and the available loaders were easily available within Trinity College.

3.1 Design Choice
For the creation of the map, it was decided that the same file format as the buildings models was used. This had the advantage that the means for loading this file format was already present and a vector image could be converted to this format. The decision to use Adobe Illustrator to create the map was made as the AI file could be easy exported to a format for loading into OpenGL. It was easier to work in a 2D environment in AI as opposed to a 3D environment in 3DS Max because the basic structure of a map is two dimensional.

An approach was attempted to apply the texture filters to the building models in real time, although this proved expensive on resources. The load time for this application was 3 times that of the previous application where the textures were pre-applied and as a result this was considered a waste of processing power. Due to this the option to use the texture filters prerendering was selected as opposed to applying them in real-time.

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3.2 Tools
The application was programmed in C++ using OpenGL. OpenGL is the most widely used and supported graphics API [OGL 07]. OpenGL was required for the creation of the 2D and 3D graphics components of application. OpenGL is supported on every major operating system and is compliant with most programming languages. This provides the advantage that the final application is platform independent. C++ was chosen to code the project as it is the most commonly used language in conjunction with OpenGL. This language provides all the necessary function to access the library and doesn’t limit its performance.

The application was compiled and programmed using Microsoft Visual Studio .net 2003 [MVS 03]. All coding of the application was my own work except were some minor elements were built upon and used previous work. The OBJ model loader [OBJM 07] class was used with permission from John Hamill (ISG group TCD). Some common graphics algorithms have been used and adapted for this application and they are referenced when discussed in the implementation chapter.

Adobe Illustrator was also used for the creation of the vector map. Various different commercial applications for converting from a raster to a vector map were also tried however theses all failed to produce a quality vector map.

The building models were mostly taken from the Virtual Dublin Project by the ISG group in trinity. Some alterations were made to these models using 3DS Max [3DS 07] which is a popular software package for the creation and editing of 3D models. Deep Exploration a program for export to and from various 3D file formats was used to the building and map models into the Alias Wavefront OBJ file format.

Adobe Photoshop was used to apply a number of filters to the building’s textures after a proof of concept using coded algorithms. The fact that the textures were in varying file formats made it impractical due to time constraints to code these conversions by hand.

GLUI which is an extension built upon OpenGL was used to produce a graphical user interface. The program was tested on a laptop with a 1.6 GHz Pentium M processor and 2GB of RAM and all frame times mentioned in this report relate to tests on this machine.

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3.3 Workflow Plan

Figure 7: The Workflow Plan of this project

The main work of this project was broken into a number of stages as illustrated in Figure 3 above. 1. Firstly various different NPR techniques were investigated and then these were applied to the building models. 2. A vector base map was created using a number of tools. 3. Both the vector map and the NPR styled buildings were then brought together into one functional application. 4. A user interface was designed and built on top of this. 5. A number of functional features were then added. 6. The application was then debugged and analyzed for optimal performance.

The project was initially broken into these stages to help organise and plan the project. Evidently the creation of the NPR buildings was the largest and most time consuming of all the stages. However this was closely followed by the stages involving the creation of the map and the design of the user interface. The optimisation and the additional features stages were the smallest, but helped to polish off the finished application.

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3.4 OpenGL
OpenGL is an event driven multi-platform graphics API [OGL07]. OpenGL is supported on every major operating system and is compliant with most programming languages. It is a software interface to a graphics system implemented in hardware or software. This interface consists of in excess of 120 distinct commands, which can be used to specify the objects and operations needed to produce interactive three-dimensional graphics applications. The interface consists of the following three libraries [OGG 07]. • • The GL library is the core OpenGL system and is primarily concerned with modelling, viewing, lighting, clipping aspects. The GLU library (GL Utility) simplifies common tasks and is used for the creation of common objects (spheres, quadrics) and the specification of standard views (e.g. perspective, orthographic). • The GLUT library (GL Utility Toolkit) provides an interface with the windowing system to allow window management, menus and other mouse interaction.

OpenGL is interactive and works in an event driven fashion continuously waiting for and handling interactions from the user. Interactions are handled by what is known as the glut event loop. An application must register handlers (or call-back functions) which are called upon, the occurrence of a particular event. Such events include a mouse button press, mouse motion, timer, window resize or redraw.

To add handlers for events we register a call-back function as follows:
// Function to deal with key press glutKeyboardFunc( GlutKeyboard );

The function GlutKeyboard is a called when a key press event occurs and this function must handle the following parameters:
// Key press function handler void GlutKeyboard(unsigned char Key, int x, int y)

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For the glutKeyboardFunc the value of the key variable is the ASCII code of the key hit and the value of x and y are the coordinates of the mouse position within the window at the moment when the key was hit.

3.5 Models
The building models used in the application were for the most part taken from Virtual Dublin which is a real-time urban simulation of Dublin city developed by the Interaction, Simulation and Graphics Lab (ISG) with in Trinity [VDUB07]. Some building models from the Google SketchUp 3D Warehouse were tested, but proved to be of too low quality for inclusion in the final application.

These models are in Alias Wavefront OBJ file format [OBJ 07] which is a commonly used format for the storing of polygonal 3D models. The file format is text based consisting of lines of data. Each line of data started with a keyword such as v for vertex or vn for the vertex normals which defined the data which followed. The following is an example of a simple OBJ file which defines a cube and maps a texture to its faces.
# # Wavefront OBJ file # Cube.obj # mtllib ./Cube.mtl g # object Box01 v -8.091908 v 11.908092 v -8.091908 v 11.908092 v -8.091908 v 11.908092 v -8.091908 v 11.908092 # 8 vertices 0.000000 8.556394 0.000000 8.556394 0.000000 -11.443606 0.000000 -11.443606 20.000000 8.556394 20.000000 8.556394 20.000000 -11.443606 20.000000 -11.443606

vt 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 0.000000 20.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 20.000000 0.000000 vt 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 0.000000 20.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 20.000000 0.000000 vt 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 0.000000 0.000000 vt 0.000000 20.000000 0.000000 vt 20.000000 20.000000 0.000000 # 12 texture vertices

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vn vn vn vn vn vn vn vn # 8

0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 -1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 0.000000 1.570796 0.000000 vertex normals

g Box01 usemtl Map_Material s f s f s f s f s f s f # G 2 4/11/4 2/9/2 1/10/1 3/12/3 4 8/12/8 7/11/7 5/9/5 6/10/6 8 6/8/6 5/7/5 1/5/1 2/6/2 16 8/4/8 6/3/6 2/1/2 4/2/4 32 7/8/7 8/7/8 4/5/4 3/6/3 64 5/4/5 7/3/7 3/1/3 1/2/1 6 faces

The structure of the OBJ file format can be seen above listed file Cube.obj. It can be seen that any line preceded by ‘#’ is a comment. Similarly the file lists the cubes vertices (v), texture vertices (vt) and vertex normal (vn). The shapes box01 sides (s) and faces (f) are then declared using the Map_Material as declared in the material library (mtllib) called ‘Cube.mtl’ which can be seen below.

# # Wavefront material file # Cube.mtl # newmtl Map_Material Ka 0.5882 0.5882 0.5882 Kd 0.5882 0.5882 0.5882 Ks 0.9 0.9 0.9 illum 2 Ns 4 map_Kd map_quad.bmp

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The above two files when rendered in OpenGL resulted in the textured cube in Figure 8. It is relatively easy to see how this file format could be used to define the more complex building models as seen later in the report.

Figure 8: Textured box which is the rendered output from the file ‘Cube.obj’

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Chapter 4

4. Implementation
This chapter examines in detail the execution and the workings of the design as it was outlined previously in the previous chapter. The completion of the map, the buildings and the user interface are discussed. Also the adding of some further features and the optimisation of the code is examined in detail.

4.1 Map
Initially it was attempted to use a matrix of raster images to represent the base map. It immediately became apparent that this approach would not be successful as the raster images lost their quality when zooming in or out. Another approach was tested where the raster images were swapped with high resolution images when zooming in. This proved difficult to smoothly implement and was wasteful of resources as the high resolution image dramatically increased in size.

To avoid the quality loss of the raster images a vector map was required. To produce this vector map various applications for conversion from a raster to a vector file format were tried, nevertheless every one produced substandard maps. The only effective approach to achieve a quality vector map was to manually trace the map.

This was completed in Adobe Illustrator as the AI file (Adobe Illustrators standard file format) could be easily exported to an OBJ file through 3DS Max. Adobe Illustrator was used as opposed to 3DS Max for this as it was easier to work in 2D rather than a 3D environment. Moreover, it was relatively straightforward to export to the OBJ file format which could then be used in OpenGL. The finished product can be seen in Figure 9 which compares the resultant vector map to the initial raster map image when zoomed in close. This show the dramatic improvement in the quality of the image that the selected approach enabled. From a user point of view this enables zooming to be used to any magnification with the deterioration of image quality.

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Figure 9: Left raster base map image distorted due to zooming, Right vector map without any distortion

Street labels were added to the map using Glut stroke characters. The text for the label and details of the translations and rotations were stored in a text based file. These details were then loaded into local memory of the program and the labels were then positioned based on these. The positioning variables in this text file can be updated and additional labels added through the positioning application which is discussed further in the positioning section.

After placing the main landmarks on the map some of the other regions appeared to lack details due to being two dimensional. As a result certain elements of the maps OBJ file were edited in 3DS Max to create raised blocks to represent irrelevant buildings on the outer edges of the map. Blending code was a then applied to the map in the application to make these blocks appear semi-transparent, so as not to take from the maps important landmarks. In Figure 10 the result of this can be seen more clearly.

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Figure 10 Screenshot demonstrating the blended blocks of outer city

4.2 Buildings
It was apparent from early research that the classic NPR rendering styles would not achieve an effective style. As you can seen in figure 11 where some classic NPR shader’s have been applied to a building model from the Virtual Dublin project [VDUB 05]. These results proved unsatisfactory as the models are heavily reliant on the detail contained in the textures and this detail was lost with these NPR techniques. It was made clear from this that this project would have to focus on a different approach. A decision was made to use a combination of texture filtering and outlining, this kept the necessary detail from the textures whilst still achieving an effective NPR style. The following sections delve more deeply into how exactly this was accomplished.

Figure 11: Example of a heavily texture mapped building model rendered normally with its texture (left), cel-shaded (centre) and pencil shaded (right)

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Prior to proceeding with the texture filtering some additional alterations were also made to the models. The first of these was polygon reduction. This involved the manipulation of the models using 3DS Max. As these models were intended to be photorealistic some contained excessive detail. Reducing the polygon count of the models reduced this detail sufficiently. This alteration both aided the NPR style and the reduction of the size of the model. Also texture sizes were reduced by 50% using the batch conversion tool of Adobe Photoshop. This was also needed as these models were initially intended to be photorealistic and the high resolution of these textures was not necessary for this application.

4.2.1 Texture Filtering
Various different algorithms were applied to the textures of the models to achieve an effective NPR style. These algorithms were adapted from previous work [IMP 07] and were used for increasing contrast, increasing brightness and greyscale conversion. An example of the photorealistic buildings from which work began can be seen in Figure 12 below.

Figure 12: A photo- realistic rendering of City Hall (File-size: 1.6mb)

Firstly the textures were converted to greyscale and this was achieved by use of the following algorithm. This code scans through all the picture elements (pixels). Each pixel has a red, green and blue value and to convert the image to greyscale each pixel value is updated with an average of the three.

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// Manipulate the image data converting to greyscale for(int pixel=0; pixel < numPixels*bytesInPixel; pixel+=bytesInPixel){ imageData[pixel]=(imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; imageData[pixel+1]=(imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; imageData[pixel+2]=imageData[pixel]+imageData[pixel+1] +imageData[pixel+2])/3; }

Secondly this algorithm manipulates all the pixels increasing the value of all elements by a set value. Testing of different values for this variable shown £% giving the optimal output. This resulted in an increase in brightness of the image from its previous state.
// setup variables for brightness manipulation int light = 35; int Light_transform[256]; for(i=0;i<256;i++){ Light_transform[i]=i+light; if(Light_transform[i]>255) Light_transform[i]=255; if(Light_transform[i]<0) Light_transform[i]=0; } // Manipulate the image data increasing brightness for(int pixel=0; pixel < numPixels*bytesInPixel; pixel+=bytesInPixel){ imageData[pixel] = Light_transform[imageData[pixel]]; imageData[pixel+1] = Light_transform[imageData[pixel+1]]; imageData[pixel+2] = Light_transform[imageData[pixel+2]]; }

This third algorithm below manipulates the contrast of the texture. The code first sets up a contrast transformation array based on a contrast variable. The code then scans through all the pixels updating each element based upon this transform array.

// set up variables for contrast manipulation float contrast = 0.8; int Contrast_transform[256]; for(int i=0;i<256;i++){ if(i<(int)(128.0f+128.0f*tan(contrast))&& i>(int)(128.0f-128.0f*tan(contrast))) Contrast_transform[i]=(i-128)/tan(contrast)+128; else if(i>=(int)(128.0f+128.0f*tan(contrast))) Contrast_transform[i]=255; else Contrast_transform[i]=0; } // Manipulate the image data increasing contrast for(int pixel=0; pixel < numPixels*bytesInPixel; pixel+=bytesInPixel){ imageData[pixel] = Contrast_transform[imageData[pixel]];

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imageData[pixel+1] = Contrast_transform[imageData[pixel+1]]; imageData[pixel+2] = Contrast_transform[imageData[pixel+2]]; }

These texture filters were applied to models with TGA file formats; however as the texture file formats varied so much for all the building models Adobe Photoshop was used to apply texture filters to the other file formats. This was decided upon as it would have been impractical and wasteful of time to code for all the different image file formats. As a result of these texture filters the building models were produced as seen in Figure 13:

Figure 13: A NPR rendering of City Hall with the texture filters (File-size: 0.9mb)

4.2.2 Silhouetting
To complement the texture filtering style achieved in the previous section it is beneficial to apply solid outlines ideally like those in the classic cell animation as in Chapter 2. The extraction of outline from 3D models is generally an expensive procedure in terms of processing requirements. However the same effect can be achieved in an indirect fashion using some of the features of OpenGL. The code to achieve this technique follows:
// Set up required setting glPushAttrib( GL_ENABLE_BIT ); glEnable (GL_LINE_SMOOTH); glEnable (GL_POLYGON_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE); glCullFace (GL_FRONT); // Enable Culling //Cull front polygon faces

glPushAttrib( GL_POLYGON_BIT | GL_CURRENT_BIT ); //Draw Outline

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glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE); glLineWidth(2); // Set the line width to 2 glColor3f(0, 0, 0); // Set Colour to black **Draw Buildings** glPopAttrib(); glDisable(GL_CULL_FACE); // Disable Culling glColor3f(1, 1, 1); **Draw Buildings** glPopAttrib();

The above code actually draws the building twice. Firstly the building model is drawn with the front facing polygons culled which draws all the outline edges of the model. The second time the building is drawn using our filtered textures. Through the combination of this silhouetting code and the texture filters which were already applied we achieve a NPR style as seen in the below Figure 14.

Figure 14: City hall with both texture filter and silhouettes code applied.

4.2.3 Positioning

After all the NPR styles had been applied to the building the next step was positioning these on the map. The buildings are positioned on the map using basic GL translations. Each building has its own specific translation values to identify its position on the map. In order to position the buildings correctly on the map a side application was coded, in which the position of these elements could be manipulated and saved via key strokes. When the buildings are positioned correctly the translation variable can then be updated in a text file containing all the building translations.

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The development of this side application proved vital and necessary in achieving a complete application, as trying to manually work out these translation variables would have been immensely time consuming and extremely difficult. This side application was also used for the manipulation and updating of the translation variables for the street labels.

4.3 Graphical User Interface
The graphical user interface (GUI) was built using GLUI, a user interface library built on top of the OpenGL API. Initially there were a number of compatibility issues while trying to get the GLUI library working with the latest release of OpenGL. GLUI was initially written by Paul Rademacher [GLUI 2.1] in 1999 and it is presently being updated and maintained by Nigel Stewart and Bill Baxter [GLUI 07]. However, the latest releases of version 2.35 and version 2.2 were fraught with compatibility issues and bugs. This resulted in having to drop back to the earlier version of 2.1, which still needed some fine-tuning to run without errors.

The application has the capability to zoom (in, out), pan (up, down, left, right) rotate and tilt the map. All of these interactions have been integrated into the user interface and can also be made through both the keyboard and the mouse. Interactions are intuitive through these three input devices and allow for maximum usability of the application

In Figure 15 a screenshot of the GUI can be seen which illustrates the simple and intuitive controls. The following GUI appears on the right hand-side of the application with the map to the left. To use any of the controls, the user simply clicks on the control icon and drags in the appropriate direction. For example when the user clicks on the pan icon and drags either up down left or right, this interaction is then reflected in the view-port of the map on the left hand-side.

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Figure 15: A screen shot of the graphical user interface

4.4 Additional Features
A number of additional features were added to the application to increase usability and include additional functions. These include the options to turn on and off the display of various elements (such as the map street names and buildings) of the application. Also there is an option to draw the building models without textures producing a rendering of the buildings as can be seen in the figure 16:

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Figure 16: Central Bank (left) and the Trinity Campanile (right) rendered using silhouette outlines and without textures

Furthermore, a feature providing the functionality to find and highlight specific buildings was added. I firstly chose the top 20 most recognised landmarks and these can now be selected from two drop down boxes in the User Interface as illustrated in the figure 17.

Figure 17: The selection of buildings to be highlighted or found

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When a buildings is selected from the find drop down box the main view port jumps to a position where the selected buildings is in focus in the centre of the screen. Similarly selecting a building from the highlight drop down box causes the outline of the selected building to turn red. This helps make the selected building stand out even further from the surrounding buildings. This is shown in the screenshot of the application in Figure 18.

Figure 18: A screenshot of finding and highlight a specific building

Scaling was also applied to the buildings models in the final build of the application. This can be manipulated in the User Interface and the scaling variable is applied to all buildings on the map. Different scaling factors could be applied to each building producing another NPR effect similar to that seen in Figure 4. This could be used to make a selected landmark more noticeable by scaling it larger than the surroundings. The full implementation of this feature was not completed due to the time constraints of this project, however the concept of how this would work was proven.

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Another important feature which was added was a frame-rate counter which continuously moderated the applications frame. This was adapted from previous work [OFC 07] to print the frames per second in the top left had corner of the program as seen in Figure19 below. This was a vital component for the optimisation and analysis of this application.

Figure 19: Application screenshot illustrating frame rate counter display

4.5 Optimisation
After getting the application to a stable running state the code was optimised in order to keep the frame rate counter to a minimum. In effect this meant trying to keep the application as responsive as possible, despite the large number of buildings that were being displayed. There were some changes made to the way in which the buildings models were stored in memory.

Initially each building was stored as an object with an array. This however generated problems as the array would overload due to the size of the models. The building models were as a result stored as an array of pointers. However this also generated errors as some of the methods of the OBJ loader class lost access to some of its variables. In the end the building models were stored in a series of small arrays avoiding the memory overload issue.

Some changes were made to the application (e.g. setting of limits on the interaction variables). Other minor errors were debugged and resolved at this stage. The resulting application was capable of loading approximately 60 buildings while still maintaining an interactive frame rate of above 10 frames per second.

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Chapter 5

5. Analysis
In this section the original goals as at the outset of the project are compared to the completed application. Also this chapter evaluates how the final application weighs up and discusses any problems encountered on the journey to achieving this. Further future developments for the application are also considered.

5.1 Results
The initial project outline laid down numerous tasks to be completed throughout the project. Firstly, a detailed research was undertaken into the areas of computer graphics, NPR, NPR techniques, OpenGL, and GLUI. This early background was essential to proceeding with the project and furthermore for the project to be aware of the current state of the art in these fields. This was completed and a great deal was learned about the current research in this area which helped to guide the project to it final state.

The project workflow plan set out the three main goals as follows: 1. The creation of the map 2. Stylising of the building models 3. Design of Graphical User interface

All of the goals have been reached and have been discussed in detail in the preceding Implementation chapter. All this leads to the conclusion that this project was an overall success. This can be further seen in the attached fully functional application which illustrates the hard work and effort which leaves a platform for future further development.

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5.2 Evaluation
The frame rate counter code of which implementation as previously been discussed was continuously monitored throughout the applications development. This was used as a gauge to insure the program remained responsive (i.e. frame rate above 10 frame/second). The application was run using both the realistic rendering of the buildings and the NPR. Comparing the frame rate data of both these produced the following interesting graph:

120 Average Framerate 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 Number of Buildings
Figure 20: Graph illustrating the performance of NPR against photo-realism in terms of average frame-rate

NPR Realistic

This graph clearly illustrates the advantages of NPR on processing and memory requirements. The reduced complexity and detail of the NPR model resulted in less memory and processing requirements and effectively higher frame rates than realistic renderings. The above illustrated positives, coupled with more recognisable buildings and a more comprehendible map, really demonstrates the value of NPR for such an application.

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5.3 Problems Encountered
While the project resulted in a complete and functional application, along the way there were of course a number of problems. Firstly prior to the coding stage the project a detailed understanding of OpenGL had to be acquired. This was achieved via the completion of numerous tutorials [NEHE 07] [MLT 07] and coding of some basic programs. After gaining an in depth knowledge of OpenGL a vast deal of research had to be undertaken into the field of NPR and the various techniques for achieving this.

Throughout the implementation phase further problems did arise. The first of which was the creation of the base map upon which the buildings were to be placed. Early on it became apparent that a raster image as a map simply wouldn’t work. Raster images as they are pixel based lose their quality when viewed close up. With the map needing the ability to zoom in and out another method had to be investigated. Firstly it was attempted to produce a map using a matrix of small raster images and flick between different images of different detail as one zoomed in on the map. This was implemented and proved unproductive as there were a large number of images required for this implementation and in addition large memory requirements.

A vector map had to be created and this did prove difficult. There exist a large number of commercial applications [AIS 07] [APS 07] for converting from raster to vector images. A large number of these were trailed and they all produced vector images which lost the majority of the detail of the map. Also the majority of vector formats are closed sources and would be difficult to load within the OpenGL framework. It was considered to try and code a program to filter through the pixels of the raster map to try creating a vector file. However, as a number of commercial applications struggled to achieve this, it was decided against this so as not to take time from the core research area of NPR.

A decision had to be made upon this map and in the end one was created by hand using Adobe Illustrator which then could be imported into 3DS Max and then exported in to an OBJ file which could be displayed in OpenGL. This part of the project was time consuming but provided significantly increased performance for the completed application.

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Positioning of the buildings and street labels was another part which proved somewhat problematic and required the creation of a side application which was used to manipulate the translation values of these items and then store the updated values. This application proved a useful and efficient tool for solving the positioning problem as by any other means this would have proved exceptional difficult. This program can be seen on the attached CD see appendix A for exact location on the CD.

5.4 Lessons Learned
If this project were completed again from scratch it would be difficult to say as to whether any of its elements would be completed differently. The project involved at the outset, a steep learning curve into the field of computer graphics. This added significantly to the production time of the project but was necessary for its completion. There were a lot of elements of investigation in this project where different ideas and techniques were explored which have now become acquired knowledge.

Such specific areas are familiarisation with various 3D and graphic file formats and how they operate, and how to apply filters to image files and an in-depth understanding of OpenGL and GLUI. There is nothing really that should be changed upon repeating the project as all the research and investigation was vital to gain a knowledge of the background field of computer graphics. However things would probably now be completed faster as a result of all that has been learned throughout the duration of the project.

5.5 Future Work
This project has developed an application which could easily be expanded upon in the future. The base map could be expanded to incorporate a larger geographical area or similar techniques could be used to build a similar map for other cities. The application lacks any advanced culling it is simply relying upon the basic culling implemented by OpenGL.

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However this could be improved upon as seen in the Virtual Dublin application from the ISG. Improved culling would be need if this application was to be commercialised but this was not focused upon, as Non Photorealistic Rendering was the main area of focus for this project. This advanced culling would be need for increasing the map geographical area as it would result in the frame rate dropping below responsiveness levels for the application to continue to be interactive.

The building models could be improved upon with more time and resources. The building models used are primarily texture mapped. This means that the models are reliant on the texture to add detail. This limited the NPR techniques that could be applied in the project and with improved base models the representation of the buildings could be further enhanced.

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Chapter 6

6. Summary

6.1 Review
The project was an interesting and educational experience which has given me a passion for the area of computer graphics and a sense of the value of a number of NPR techniques. Initially the project was set out to create an interactive 3D landmark map of Dublin City stylized using NPR techniques. This was achieved through the investigation of various NPR techniques and then applying these to a set of building models and a map. The resultant application runs smoothly which illustrates the value of NPR in mapping. This application provides a platform for future development and the project was certainly a success. The project was interesting and has given me a passion that will see me continue to work in this area into the future.

6.2 Conclusion
It has been proven that NPR is a beneficial and effective rendering technique for large geographical areas. Throughout the report the results of NPR on the building models has been evident. The reduced complexity and increased recognisablity of the building has been witnessed as various NPR techniques were applied to the building models. Furthermore, the reduction in memory requirements and processing power has been illustrated. All this evidence concludes that NPR is an invaluable tool especially for the rendering of maps and buildings.

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Appendix A. CD Contents
The attached CD contains a fully functional and working version of the completed application. It also contains the source code for the program, the OBJ models of the base map, the building models used in the application and all the associated translation data. The exact structure of the CD is described below in detail.

The root folder of the CD contains the following: Thesis.pdf • • A PDF version of this thesis, viewable in Adobe Reader.

Application folder This folder contains all the necessary files for the project executable to be run and the complete Visual Studio project files. The following is a list of this folders contents in more detail:

Dublin_City_Map.exe • This is a compiled executable of the application. The application folder must be copied to the local hard drive to run the application efficiently.

main.cpp • This is the main file of the program which contains the majority of the coding completed for this project.

OBJModel.cpp, OBJModel.h, ImageLaoder.lib, glext.h • These files are used for the loading of the OBJ buildings models. Thanks to John Hamill (ISG group TCD) for use of this piece of code.

Buildings.txt and labels.txt • These two text files store the data and translation details for both the street labels and the building models.

The remaining folders contain all the building and map models which are stored in different grouped folders.

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Appendix B. Application Screenshots
The following is a selection of screenshots of the application in operation:

Figure 21: Application Screenshot 1

Figure 22: Application Screenshot 2

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Figure 23: Application Screenshot 3

Figure 24: Application Screenshot 4

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Appendix C. Code Listing
The full source code for this project is included on the enclosed CD. Below is the code listing for the file ‘main.cpp’, which contains the core of the coding for this application.

An Interactive Computer Generated Landmark Map of Dublin #include #include #include #include #include #include <string.h> // String class to hold Label data <GL/glut.h> // GlUT and OpenGL <GL/glui.h> // GLUI <windows.h> // for timeGetTime() for framerate <mmsystem.h> <stdio.h> // input, output // ImageLoader Library

#pragma comment(lib, "ImageLoader.lib") #include "OBJModel.h" #include "ImageLoader.h"

// OBJModel class // ImageLoader class

// Variables to hold frame-start and // frame-end times for frame-rate calculations... DWORD frameStartTime, frameEndTime; // Variables required for the mouse interactions float xy_aspect; int last_x, last_y; float rotationX = 0.0, rotationY = 0.0; /** These are the live variables passed into GLUI ***/ int obj_type = 1; int main_window; float scaleX=1.0,scaleY=1.0,scaleZ=1.0; // Variable to store the display state of specific items int show_build = 1; int show_map = 1; int show_text = 1; int show_bare = 0; // Variable function stares int curr_highlight = 0; int curr_find = 0; int last_find; // Top 20 landmarks for find and highlight functions char *string_list[] = {" ", "Art Gallery", "Bank Of Ireland","Berkley Hall", "Busaras","Central Bank", "Christ Church","City Hall", "Civic Offices","Dublin Castle", "Dublin Spire","Hapenny Bridge", "IFSC","Liberty Hall", "Stephens Green","The Custom's House",

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"The Four Courts","Trinity Campanile", "Trinty Chapel","Trinity Museum"}; // Scaling and other interaction variables are declared float scale = 3.0; float view_rotate[16] = { 1,0,0,0, 0,1,0,0, 0,0,1,0, 0,0,0,1 }; float obj_pos[] = { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 }; float RotateAngle = 0.0; float TiltAngle = -50.0; // Number of buildings int NumBuilds; // variable for label details const int NumLabels=40; char LabelsName[NumLabels][30]; char llabel[40]; float lrot[NumLabels]; float lx[NumLabels],ly[NumLabels],lz[NumLabels]; // Variables int float bool bool for mouse camera manipualtion mouseX,mouseY,prevMouseX,prevMouseY; mouseSensitivity = 0.05; cameraMove = false; cameraZoom = false;

// Translation for Find functionality float find_pos[20][2]={{0.,0.0},{-0.151,-3.0}, {-8.35,1.85},{-4.15,0.05}, {0.1,9.4},{-11.0,0.95}, {-18.5,-0.35},{-14.5,-1.7}, {-18.2,0.349},{-14.75,-1.5}, {-8.4,9.89},{-11.0,3.2}, {1.2,7.95},{-3.65,7.65}, {-6.4,-10.0},{-1.5,7.5}, {-19.95,3.15},{-4.2,0.7}, {-5.9,1.25},{-3.35,0.25}}; // OBJ OBJECTS Arrays COBJModel Buildings1[20]; COBJModel Buildings2[20]; COBJModel Buildings3[20]; COBJModel Buildings4[20]; COBJModel Buildings5[20]; COBJModel Buildings6[20]; COBJModel Buildings7[20]; // OBJ model for general map COBJModel map01; // OBJ model for rivers.. COBJModel map_rivers; /** Pointers to the windows and some of the controls we'll create **/ GLUI *glui; GLUI_Checkbox GLUI_Spinner GLUI_RadioGroup GLUI_Panel #define RESET_ID

*checkbox; *spinner; *radio; *obj_panel; 303

/*********** control_cb() ******/ /* GLUI control callback */ void control_cb( int control )

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{ // Rest the interaction values when if ( control == RESET_ID ) { scale = 3.0; obj_pos[0] = 0.0; obj_pos[1] = 0.0; RotateAngle = 0.0; TiltAngle = -50.0; show_build = 1; show_map = 1; show_text = 1; curr_highlight = 0; curr_find = 0; } } /*********************** FrameStart() *******************/ void FrameStart(void) { // Record frame start time frameStartTime = timeGetTime(); } /********************* FrameEnd() *******************/ void FrameEnd(void *font, GLclampf r, GLclampf g, GLclampf b, GLfloat x, GLfloat y) { float elapsedTime; char str[30]; char *ch; GLint matrixMode; // Record frame end time frameEndTime = timeGetTime(); // Calculate the frames per second elapsedTime = (frameEndTime-frameStartTime); elapsedTime = elapsedTime/1000; sprintf(str, "Frames per second: %2.0f", 1.0/elapsedTime); glGetIntegerv(GL_MATRIX_MODE, &matrixMode); // Display the calculated FPS value glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glPushMatrix(); glLoadIdentity(); gluOrtho2D(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glPushMatrix(); glLoadIdentity(); glPushAttrib(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); /* save current colour */ glColor3f(r, g, b); glRasterPos3f(x, y, 0.0); for(ch= str; *ch; ch++) { glutBitmapCharacter(font, (int)*ch); } glPopAttrib(); glPopMatrix(); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glPopMatrix(); glMatrixMode(matrixMode);

} /*************** GlutKeyboard() **********/ void GlutKeyboard(unsigned char Key, int x, int y) { // Update variable based upon key inputs switch(Key)

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{ case 27 : case 'q': case 'Q': exit(0); break; case 'a': case 'A': TiltAngle+=1; break; case 'z': case 'Z': TiltAngle-=1; break; case 's': case 'S': RotateAngle+=1; break; case 'd': case 'D': RotateAngle-=1; break; case 'f': case 'F': scale+=0.1; break; case 'v': case 'V': scale-=0.1; break; }; glutPostRedisplay(); } /************** SpecialKeys() **********/ void SpecialKeys(int key, int x, int y) { switch(key) { case GLUT_KEY_UP: // to pan up obj_pos[1]+=1.0f; break; case GLUT_KEY_DOWN: obj_pos[1]-=1.0f; break; case GLUT_KEY_LEFT: obj_pos[0]-=1.0f; break; // to pan down

// to pan left

case GLUT_KEY_RIGHT: // to pan right obj_pos[0]+=1.0f; break; }; glutPostRedisplay(); }

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/***************************************** GlutIdle() ***********/ void GlutIdle( void ) { /* According to the GLUT specification, the current window is // Undefined during an idle call-back // So we need to explicitly change it if necessary */ if ( glutGetWindow() != main_window ) glutSetWindow(main_window); glutPostRedisplay(); } /************************* MouseClick() **********/ void MouseClick(int button, int state, int x, int y){ // Set camera move to true when left click down if(button == GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON){ switch(state){ case GLUT_DOWN:cameraMove=true; break; case GLUT_UP:cameraMove=false; break; } } // Set camera zoom to true on right click down if(button == GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON){ switch(state){ case GLUT_DOWN:cameraZoom=true; break; case GLUT_UP:cameraZoom=false; break; } } } /********************* GlutMotion() **********/ void MouseMotion(int x, int y){ // If camerMove true edit translation variables // as determined by the previous mouse position if(cameraMove){ obj_pos[0] += (x - prevMouseX) * mouseSensitivity; obj_pos[1] -= (y - prevMouseY) * mouseSensitivity; } // If camerZoom true edit map scaling variable // as determined by the previous mouse position if(cameraZoom){ if(!cameraMove){ scale -= (y - prevMouseY) * mouseSensitivity; } } // Record the previous mouse positions prevMouseX=x; prevMouseY=y; } /******************* MouseMove() **********/ void MouseMove(int x, int y){ // Record the previous mouse positions prevMouseX=x; prevMouseY=y; } /***************** GlutReshape() *************/ void GlutReshape( int x, int y )

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{ int tx, ty, tw, th; GLUI_Master.get_viewport_area( &tx, &ty, &tw, &th ); glViewport( tx, ty, tw, th ); xy_aspect = (float)tw / (float)th; glutPostRedisplay(); } /************************* DrawMap() **********/ // Draw map using previous loaded OBJ files void DrawMap() { glPushMatrix(); // Apply negative height scale to the obj map glScalef(1,1,-1); // Scale the block height glScalef(1,1,0.1); // Setup blending glDepthMask(GL_FALSE); glEnable(GL_BLEND ); glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_SRC_ALPHA); glColor4f(0.9051, 0.9051, 0.8051,0.3); map01.DrawModel(); glDisable(GL_BLEND); glDepthMask(GL_TRUE); //glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); // Draw the map obj // Turn Blending On

// Turn Depth Testing Off

glRotatef( 90.0f, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ); // Rotate onto map glTranslatef( 1.3, 0.0, 1.3f ); // Translate to position rivers correctly glColor3f(0.801, 0.801, 0.901); // Set Colour map_rivers.DrawModel(); glPopMatrix(); } /********************* DrawLabels() **********/ // Draw Labels as per the previous loaded data from file void DrawLabels() { glPushMatrix(); glColor3f(0, 0, 0); // Set the colour to black glScalef( 0.001, 0.001, 0.001 ); // Scale to set the size of the font // Draw the rivers obj

for (int num =0; num<NumLabels ;num++){ glPushMatrix(); // Translate and Rotate to the required position glTranslatef( lx[num], ly[num], lz[num] ); glRotatef( lrot[num], 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ); for (int c=0; LabelsName[num][c]!= '###BOT_TEXT###'; c++) { glLineWidth(2); if(LabelsName[num][c]== '_'){ glutStrokeCharacter(GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN ,' '); }else{

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glutStrokeCharacter(GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN ,LabelsName[num][c]); } } glPopMatrix(); } glPopMatrix(); } /************************ LoadBuildings() **********/ // Load the buildings based on data from files void LoadBuildings() { // Attributes for temporary storage of building data FILE *buildfp; // File used to obtain data char *BuildName[30]; // Temp store for specific buildings name char dirname[60]; // Temp store for buildings directory data char BuildFilename[60]; // Temp store for the buildings filenames char LISTTYPE[20]; // Temp store for specific buildings type float bx=0.0,by=0.0,bz=0.0; // Temp store for buildings translations

// Open the file containing the Building Data buildfp=fopen("Buildings.txt","r"); // Buffer used to scan through the data in the file char buildingBuffer[256]; fgets(&buildingBuffer[0],250,buildfp); // Read the first line of data // While this line is a comment ( denoted by '#' symbol) while(buildingBuffer[0] == '#'){ fgets(&buildingBuffer[0],250,buildfp); // Skip the comments } // Read the number of builds to load from the file sscanf(&buildingBuffer[0],"Number Of Buildings: %d",&NumBuilds);

// While the number of buildings loaded is // less than number requiring loading loop through following code for(int bload=0;bload<NumBuilds;bload++){ // Read the next line of data fgets(&buildingBuffer[0],250,buildfp); // While this line is a comment( denoted by '#' symbol) while(buildingBuffer[0] == '#'){ fgets(&buildingBuffer[0],250,buildfp); // Skip the comments } sscanf(&buildingBuffer[0],"%s %s %s x%f y%f z%f %s\n",&BuildName[0], &dirname[0],&BuildFilename[0],&bx,&by,&bz,&LISTTYPE[0]); if(bload<20){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building1 array at positon "<<bload<<std::endl; Buildings1[bload].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings1[bload].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings1[bload].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings1[bload].LockPosition(); Buildings1[bload].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); }

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if((bload>19)&&(bload<40)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building2 array at positon "<<bload-20<<std::endl; Buildings2[bload-20].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings2[bload-20].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings2[bload-20].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings2[bload-20].LockPosition(); Buildings2[bload-20].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } if((bload>39)&&(bload<60)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building3 array at positon "<<bload-40<<std::endl; Buildings3[bload-40].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings3[bload-40].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings3[bload-40].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings3[bload-40].LockPosition(); Buildings3[bload-40].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } if((bload>59)&&(bload<80)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building4 array at positon "<<bload-60<<std::endl; Buildings4[bload-60].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings4[bload-60].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings4[bload-60].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings4[bload-60].LockPosition(); Buildings4[bload-60].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } if((bload>79)&&(bload<100)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building5 array at positon "<<bload-80<<std::endl; Buildings5[bload-80].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings5[bload-80].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings5[bload-80].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings5[bload-80].LockPosition(); Buildings5[bload-80].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } if((bload>99)&&(bload<120)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building6 array at positon "<<bload-100<<std::endl; Buildings6[bload-100].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings6[bload-100].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings6[bload-100].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings6[bload-100].LockPosition(); Buildings6[bload-100].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } if((bload>119)&&(bload<140)){ std::cout<<std::endl<<" Loading Building7 array at positon "<<bload-120<<std::endl; Buildings7[bload-120].LoadCOBJModel2(dirname,BuildFilename); Buildings7[bload-120].SetOBJPos(bx,by,bz); Buildings7[bload-120].ModelNumber=bload; Buildings7[bload-120].LockPosition(); Buildings7[bload-120].ReadMTL(TEX_S3TC|TEX_PALETTED); } } // close the buildings file fclose(buildfp);

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}

/******************************* LoadLabels() **********/ // Load the Labels based on data from files void LoadLabels() { // load labels for the map FILE *labelfp; labelfp=fopen("Labels.txt","r"); char labelBuffer[256]; fgets(&labelBuffer[0],250,labelfp); while(labelBuffer[0] == '#'){ // Skip Comments fgets(&labelBuffer[0],250,labelfp); } //int NumLabel; //sscanf(&labelBuffer[0],"Number Of Labels: %d",&NumLabel); for(int lload=0;lload<NumLabels;lload++){ fgets(&labelBuffer[0],250,labelfp); while(labelBuffer[0] == '#'){ // Skip Comments fgets(&labelBuffer[0],250,labelfp); } sscanf(&labelBuffer[0],"%s x%f y%f z%f r%f\n",&LabelsName[lload][0],&lx[lload],&ly[lload],&lz[lload],&lrot[lload]); } // close the Labels file fclose(labelfp); } /******************************* LoadMap() **********/ void LoadMap() { // Load map OBJ map01.LoadCOBJModel2("Map","map04.obj"); map01.ReadMTL(); // Load river OBJ map_rivers.LoadCOBJModel2("Map","rivers.obj"); map_rivers.ReadMTL(); } /**********************DrawBuildings() **********/

void DrawBuildings() { glRotatef( 90.0f, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ); // rotate onto map glScalef( 0.015f, 0.015f, 0.015f); // Scaling of buildings glTranslatef(-435.0f, 10.0f, 102.0f); // translate to so as building positions are correct glPushMatrix(); glScalef( scaleX, scaleY, scaleZ); glPushAttrib( GL_ENABLE_BIT ); glEnable (GL_LINE_SMOOTH); glEnable (GL_POLYGON_SMOOTH); // Scaling of buildings

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glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE); glCullFace (GL_FRONT); //Enable front face Culling glPushAttrib( GL_POLYGON_BIT | GL_CURRENT_BIT ); glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE); glLineWidth(2);

for(int cc=0;cc<NumBuilds;cc++){ if(cc==(curr_highlight-1)){ glColor3f(1, 0, 0); // Draw highlighted red silhouette }else{ glColor3f(0, 0, 0); // Assume all other silhouettes black } if(cc<20){ Buildings1[cc].DrawModel(); } if((cc>19)&&(cc<40)){ Buildings2[cc-20].DrawModel(); } if((cc>39)&&(cc<60)){ Buildings3[cc-40].DrawModel(); } if((cc>59)&&(cc<80)){ Buildings4[cc-60].DrawModel(); } if((cc>79)&&(cc<100)){ Buildings5[cc-80].DrawModel(); } if((cc>99)&&(cc<120)){ Buildings6[cc-100].DrawModel(); } if((cc>119)&&(cc<140)){ Buildings7[cc-120].DrawModel(); } } glPopAttrib(); glDisable(GL_CULL_FACE); glColor3f(1, 1, 1); for( cc=0;cc<NumBuilds;cc++){ if(show_bare==0){ if(cc<20){ Buildings1[cc].DrawModel(); } if((cc>19)&&(cc<40)){ Buildings2[cc-20].DrawModel(); } if((cc>39)&&(cc<60)){ Buildings3[cc-40].DrawModel(); } if((cc>59)&&(cc<80)){ Buildings4[cc-6000].DrawModel(); } if((cc>79)&&(cc<100)){ Buildings5[cc-80].DrawModel(); } if((cc>99)&&(cc<120)){ Buildings6[cc-100].DrawModel();

57

} if((cc>119)&&(cc<140)){ Buildings7[cc-120].DrawModel(); } } if(show_bare==1){ if(cc<20){ Buildings1[cc].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>19)&&(cc<40)){ Buildings2[cc-20].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>39)&&(cc<60)){ Buildings3[cc-40].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>59)&&(cc<80)){ Buildings4[cc-6000].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>79)&&(cc<100)){ Buildings5[cc-80].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>99)&&(cc<120)){ Buildings6[cc-100].DrawModelBare(); } if((cc>119)&&(cc<140)){ Buildings7[cc-120].DrawModelBare(); } } } glPopAttrib(); glPopMatrix(); } /********************** GlutDisplay() *****************/ void GlutDisplay( void ) { glClearDepth( 1.0 ); glClearColor( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f ); glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT ); // Start the Frames per second counter ... FrameStart(); glMatrixMode( GL_PROJECTION ); glLoadIdentity(); glFrustum( -xy_aspect*.04, xy_aspect*.04, -.04, .04, .1, 1500.0 ); glMatrixMode( GL_MODELVIEW ); glLoadIdentity(); // Apply Restrictions To trans,rotates.. if(scale>18.0){scale=18.0;} if(scale<0.7){scale=0.7;} if(TiltAngle<-140.0){TiltAngle=-140.0;} if(RotateAngle>70.0){RotateAngle=4.0;} if(RotateAngle<-70.0){RotateAngle=-70.0;} if(obj_pos[0]<-24.0){obj_pos[0]=-24.0;} if(obj_pos[0]>33.0){obj_pos[0]=33.0;} if(obj_pos[1]<-26.0){obj_pos[1]=-26.0;} if(obj_pos[1]>36.0){obj_pos[1]=36.0;}

58

// Apply translations for finding buildings if(curr_find!=last_find){ obj_pos[0]=find_pos[curr_find][0]; obj_pos[1]=find_pos[curr_find][1]; } last_find=curr_find; glTranslatef( 0.0, 0.0, -30.0f ); // Apply the tilt angle to the map glRotatef(TiltAngle,1,0,0); // Rotations via the Glui rotation ball glMultMatrixf( view_rotate ); // Scaling for zooming in and out glScalef( scale, scale, scale ); // Translation for pan up, down, left, right... glTranslatef( -obj_pos[0], -obj_pos[1], obj_pos[2] ); // Apply the rotation angle to the map glRotatef(RotateAngle,0,0,1); // If show_map is true draw map.. if ( show_map ){ DrawMap(); } // show text if ( show_text ) { DrawLabels(); } if ( show_build ) { DrawBuildings(); // DrawGenericBuild(); } // Frame counter display code FrameEnd(GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.05, 0.95); glFlush(); glutSwapBuffers(); } /*********************** main() ********************/ void main(int argc, char* argv[]) { /****************************************/ /* Initialize GLUT and create window */ /**************************************** //glutInitDisplayMode( GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DEPTH | GLUT_DOUBLE); glutInitDisplayMode( GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DEPTH ); glutInitWindowPosition( 20, 20 ); glutInitWindowSize( 900, 700 ); main_window = glutCreateWindow( "Dublin City Map" ); // Set OpenGL parameters glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); LoadMap(); // Load OBJ map files

59

LoadBuildings(); LoadLabels();

// Load buildings from obj files // Load Labels for street names etc..

glutDisplayFunc( GlutDisplay ); // Main display function GLUI_Master.set_glutReshapeFunc( GlutReshape ); // Function to deal with window resizing GLUI_Master.set_glutKeyboardFunc( GlutKeyboard ); // Function to deal with key press GLUI_Master.set_glutSpecialFunc( SpecialKeys ); // Special key function set to NULL GLUI_Master.set_glutMouseFunc(MouseClick); // Function to deal with mouse click glutMotionFunc(MouseMotion); // Function to deal with mouse motion glutPassiveMotionFunc(MouseMove); // Function to deal with mouse move

/****************************************/ /* Here's the GLUI code */ /****************************************/ // Print the Glui Version printf( "GLUI version: %3.2f\n", GLUI_Master.get_version() ); /*** Create the side sub window ***/ glui = GLUI_Master.create_glui_subwindow( main_window, GLUI_SUBWINDOW_RIGHT );

// Spacer glui->add_statictext( " " ); // Static Text glui->add_statictext( " CONTROLS" ); // Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Pan Up, Down, Left, Right GLUI_Translation *trans_xy = glui->add_translation( "Pan [ML]", GLUI_TRANSLATION_XY, obj_pos ); trans_xy->set_speed( .01 ); // Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Zoom in, out GLUI_Translation *trans_z = glui->add_translation( "Zoom [f,v,MR]", GLUI_TRANSLATION_Z, &obj_pos[2] ); trans_z->set_speed( .1 ); // Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Rotate Left or Right GLUI_Translation *trans_x = glui->add_translation( "Rotate [s,d]", GLUI_TRANSLATION_X, &RotateAngle ); trans_x->set_speed( .1 ); // Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Increase or decrease the tilt angle GLUI_Translation *tansy = glui->add_translation( "Tilt Angle [a,z]", GLUI_TRANSLATION_Y, &TiltAngle ); trans_y->set_speed( .1 );

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// Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Rotation Ball GLUI_Rotation *view_rot = glui->add_rotation( "Rotation", view_rotate ); view_rot->set_spin( 0.0005 ); // Seperator bar glui->add_separator(); // Spacer glui->add_statictext( "" );

/*** Add Rollout for Options ***/ GLUI_Rollout *options = glui->add_rollout( "Options", true); glui->add_checkbox_to_panel( options, "Display Map", &show_map ); glui->add_checkbox_to_panel( options, "Display Text", &show_text ); glui->add_checkbox_to_panel( options, "Display Buildings", &show_build ); glui->add_checkbox_to_panel( options, "Draw Bare Models", &show_bare ); // Spacer glui->add_statictext( "" ); GLUI_Spinner *segment_spinner2 = glui->add_spinner( "Scale Buildings Height:", GLUI_SPINNER_FLOAT, &scaleY ); segment_spinner2->set_float_limits( .2f, 4.0 ); // Spacer glui->add_statictext( "" ); /**** Add listbox ****/ GLUI_Listbox *list2 = glui->add_listbox( "Find:", &curr_find ); int j; for( j=0; j<20; j++ ) list2->add_item( j, string_list[j] ); /**** Add listbox ****/ GLUI_Listbox *list = glui->add_listbox( "Highlight:", &curr_highlight ); int i; for( i=0; i<20; i++ ) list->add_item( i, string_list[i] ); // Spacer glui->add_statictext( "" ); // A 'quit' button to terminate program glui->add_button( "Reset", RESET_ID, control_cb); // A 'quit' button to terminate program glui->add_button( "Quit", 0,(GLUI_Update_CB)exit ); /** Link windows to GLUI, and register idle callback ****/ glui->set_main_gfx_window( main_window ); /**** We register the idle callback with GLUI, *not* with GLUT **/ GLUI_Master.set_glutIdleFunc( GlutIdle ); /**** Regular GLUT main loop ****/ glutMainLoop(); }

61

Bibliography
[EST 07] “Escape Travel Ltd - NPR map of St. Petersburg” http://www.escapetravel.spb.ru/images/map.jpg Last checked 7 May 02007 “Shrek Sequel - a picture that's worth 20 terabytes”
http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/06/21/BUGME78HCO1.DTL

[SST 07]

Last checked 7 May 2007 [SHB86] “Hairy Brushes” Proceedings of an annual conference on Computer Graphics Steve Strassman August 1986 “Drawing natural scenery by computer graphics” T. T. Sasada May 1987 “NPR architectural example” http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/academics/courses/special_topics/39 5-npr/npr/resource.html Last checked 7 may 2007 “Computer–Generated Pen–And–Ink Illustration” In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’94 Georges Winkenbach and David H. Salesin July 1994. “Orientable textures for image-based pen-and-ink illustration“ In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’94 Salisbury, M. P., Wong, M. T., Hughes, J. F., and Salesin, 1994 “Google Scholar search for Non Photorealistic Rendering” http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=non+photorealistic+re ndering Last checked 7 May 2007 “Non- Photorealistic Computer Graphics” Modelling, Rendering and Animation Thomas Strothotte, Stefan Schlechtweg 2002 “Wikipedia Medical Diagram of Alveoli” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Alveoli_diagram.png Last checked 7 May 2007

[ANS87]

[NPA 07]

[WNB 94]

[SAL 94]

[GSN 07]

[TSN 02]

[WMD 07]

62

[GMW 07]

“Google Maps Web Application” http://maps.google.com/ Last checked 7 May 2007 “Microsoft Visual Studio .net 2003” http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/vstudio/aa700867.aspx Last checked 7 May 2007 “Adobe Illustrator” http://www.adobe.com/products/illustrator/ Last checked 7 May 2007 “Adobe Photoshop” http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/index.html Last checked 7 May 2007 “Image Processing Algorithms” http://www.codeproject.com/cs/media/csharpgraphicfilters11.asp Last Checked 7 May 2007 “Autodesk 3DS Max 8”
http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?id=5659302&siteID=123112

[MVS 03]

[AIS 07]

[APS 07]

[IMP 07]

[3DS 07]

Last checked 7 May 2007 [OBJ 07] “Alias Wavefront OBJ Format” http://www.eg-models.de/formats/Format_Obj.html Last checked 7 May 2007 “NeHe Productions” http://nehe.gamedev.net Last checked 7 May 2007 “Morrowland Tutorials” http://www.morrowland.com/apron/tut_gl.php Last checked 7 May 2007 “OpenGL” http://www.opengl.org Last checked 7 May 2007 “OpenGL Programming Guide” http://fly.cc.fer.hr/~unreal/theredbook/ Last checked 7 May 2007 “OpenGL ES” http://www.khronos.org/opengles/ Last checked 7 May 2007 “Virtual Dublin Project” http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/hamilljp/TCDModel/index.html Last checked 7 May 2007

[NEHE 07]

[MLT 07]

[OGL 07]

[OGG 07]

[OES 07]

[VDUB 07]

63

[GLUI 2.1]

“GL User Interface Library 2.1”

http://www.cs.unc.edu/~rademach/glui Paul Rademacher Last checked 7 May 2007
[GLUI 07] “GL User Interface Library”

http://glui.sourceforge.net/ Last checked 7 May 2007 [OBJM 07] “OBJ Model Loader Class”
http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/hamilljp/ John Hamill

Last checked 7 May 2007
[OFC 07] “OpenGL frame-rate counter code” http://www.cs.manchester.ac.uk/software/OpenGL/frames.txt

Toby Howard March 1999

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