Construction Project Management.ppt

Construction Project Management OUTLINE Definition of Project Management II. Constructi Construction on Contractor Contractors s III. Changing Environment of the Construction   Industry IV. IV. Project Construction Construc tion Management Manageme nt V. The Project Manager  VI. Discipline and skills reuired in Project   Management VII !antt Chart PE"T#CPM$ %&Curve and Cash 'lo( VIII VIII.. Mate Materi rial al Proc Procur urem emen entt and and Deli Delive very ry I). Construction Euipment I. Project Management defined… Project managemen managementt is defined by the Project Management Institute’s PMI! guide to Project Management "ody of #no$%edge PM"O#! as the a&&%ication of 'no$%edge( s'i%%s( too%s( and techni)ues to &roject acti*ities in $hich resources such as man( machine( materia%( and money are organi+ed to underta'e a sco&e of $or'( of gi*en s&ecification and )ua%ity( $ithin constraints of cost and time( and to manage the ris's in*o%*ed in underta'ing the same so as to de%i*er the e,&ected benefits as defined by )uantitati*e and )ua%itati*e objecti*es. Construction Contractors *uilders (ho supervise the e+ecution of construction projects are traditionally referred to as contractors contractors$$ or more appropriately called constructors constructors..   The general contractor coordinates contractor coordinates various tasks for a project.   The specialty contractors such as mechanical or electrical contractors contractors perform the (ork in their specialties. specialties.  Material and euipment suppliers often act as installation contractors,, they play a significant role in a construction contractors project since the conditions of delivery of materials and euipment affect the uality$ cost$ and timely completion of the project. The Changing En*ironment of the Construction Industry The construction industry is a conglomeration of diverse fields and participants that have -een loosely lumped together as a sector of the economy. economy. The construction industry plays a central role in national (elfare$ including the development of residential housing$ office -uildings and industrial plants$ and the restoration of the nations infrastructure and other pu-lic facilities. %everal factors are particularly note(orthy -ecause of their significant impacts on the uality$ cost and time of construction. Ne$ Techno%ogies / Computer&aids have improved capa-ilities for generating uality designs as (ell as reducing the time reuired to produce alternative designs. 0e( materials not only have enhanced the uality of construction -ut also have shortened the time for shop fa-rication and field erection. /  Internet is (idely used as a means to foster colla-oration among professionals on a project$ to communicate for -ids and results$ and to procure necessary goods and services. /  "eal time video from specific construction sites is (idely used to illustrate construction progress to interested parties. Construction uality and cost can -e improved (ith the adoption of ne( technologies (hich are proved to -e efficient from -oth the vie(points of performance and economy. Project management  is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project -y using modern management techniues to achieve predetermined o-jectives of scope$ cost$ time$ uality and participation satisfaction. Project construction management differs much from management of more traditional activities. It is a uniue one&time operation (ith one major o-jective  1 to accomplish an specified tasks in a limited time frame(ork. The functions of project management for construction generally include the follo(ing2 %pecification of project o-jectives and plans including delineation of scope$ -udgeting$ scheduling$ setting performance reuirements$ and selecting project participants. Ma+imi3ation of efficient resource utili3ation through procurement of la-or$ materials and euipment according to the prescri-ed schedule and plan. Implementation of various operations through proper coordination and control of planning$ design$ estimating$ contracting and construction in the entire process. Development of effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts among the various participants. The main feature in project construction is the Project Manager   (ho oversee a variety of operations that involves repetitive activities and other various (orks. The project manager $ in the -roadest sense of the term$ is the most important person for the success or failure of a project. The project manager   is responsi-le organi3ing and controlling the project. for planning$ In turn$ the project manager   receives authority from the management of the organi3ation to mo-ili3e the necessary resources to complete a project. 4ey factors cited for successful projects are2 (ell defined scope e+tensive early planning good leadership$ management and first line supervision positive client relationship (ith client involvement proper project team chemistry uick response to changes engineering managers concerned (ith the total project$ not just the engineering elements.  Conversely$ the key factors cited for unsuccessful projects are2 ill&defined scope poor management poor planning -reakdo(n in communication -et(een engineering and construction unrealistic scope$ schedules and -udgets many changes at various stages of progress lack of good project control .isci&%ines and s'i%%s re)uired in Project Management   Integration- integrates the three main project management processes of planning$ e+ecution and control 1 (here inputs from several kno(ledge areas are put together. 5.Project goals must -e esta-lished and priorities set. 6.Different (orks must -e identified and time estimate must -e determined. 7."esource reuirement must -e projected$ and -udget must -e prepared. 8.9nce under(ay$ progress must -e monitored to assure achievement of the goal. /co&e Management-  includes the processes reuired to ensure that the project includes all the (ork reuired$ and only the (ork reuired$ to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned (ith defining and controlling (hat is or is not included in the project to meet the goals and o-jectives. It consists of authori3ation$ scope planning$ scope definition$ scope change management and scope verification. The Project Manager:s mission is to coordinate $ control and accomplish. plan$ ;hat the Project Manager needs to kno( are2 5.The logical construction seuence that must -e follo(ed. 6.The uantity and the delivery date:s of various materials to -e used. 7..The chart also tends to prevent changes in design and layout (ith conseuent delays and increased in cost. It also provided essential information regarding la-or$ materials and plant reuirements. ACTIVITY antt !hart"#ar !hart for !onstruction Wk   Wk  Wk  Wk  Wk  Wk  Wk  1 Relocate the site and stake Excavation and footing Erection of post and girts Roof framing and roong Floors and walls Plumbing and electrical Finishing Works 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wk  8 Wk  9 !antt Chart  6" 9 < C " ACT ; := 7 8 6 9 : COST 8= 9 A 200 B 150 C 300 D 200 E 100 F 150 6 4 . 5 6= 7= 6 9= 7 6 E 6: 8 678?:= < C " ACT ; 5 > " > . > 7E 8 := 7 8 6 9 : COST 8= 9 A 200 B 150 C 300 D 200 E 100 F 150 6 4 . 5 6= 7= 6 < C " ACT ; 9= 7 6 := E 6: 8 5 > " > . > E > 74 >7C 6 6 678?:= ;== 7 8 6 9 : COST 8= 9 A 200 B 150 C 300 D 200 E 100 F 150 6 4 . 5 6= 7= 6 < C " ACT ; 9= 7 6 := E 6: 8 678?:= ;== @== 77== " 8= 9 6 6= 6 CO/T 77== 800 - @== 600 - ;== 400 200 - ?& 9= 7 6 := E 6: 1200 1000 - 4 . 5 7= C 8 678?:= TIME " C 8= 9 6 6= 7= 6 CO/T 77== 800 - @== 600 - ;== 400 200 - ?& 9= 7 6 := E 6: 1200 1000 - 4 . 5 8 678?:= TIME " C 8= 9 6 6= 7= 6 CO/T 1200 - 4 . 5 9= 7 6 := E 6: 8 1000 800 600 400 200 - ?& TIME COST 312.50 600 800 1100 CO/T 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 - ?& TIME 312.50 600 800 1100 .12/-3 ,/2,/3 4.24.3 -553 CO/T A 100 80 60 40 20 0- TIME F Bua%ity Management-  includes the process reuired to ensure that the project (ill satisfy the needs for (hich it (as undertaken. It consists of determining the reuired condition$ uality planning$ uality assurance and uality control. ;ith the attention to conformance as the measure of uality during the construction process$ the specification of uality reuirements in the design and contract documentation -ecomes e+tremely important. Projects must -e delivered not only on time and on -udget$ -ut also to specification this is (hat GualityH means in project management. s part of this$ ensure that you actively manage project -enefits. *y continuously referring to the -enefits that the project (ill provide$ you keep client uality at the forefront 1 and you (ont (aste precious time and resources trying to achieve an inappropriate level of uality. F uman 0esource Management- includes the process reuired to make the most effective use of the people involved (ith the project. It consists of organi3ation planning$ staff acuisition. The people on your project team can make or -reak the final outcome.
View more...
   EMBED

Share

Preview only show first 6 pages with water mark for full document please download

Transcript

Construction

Project
Management

OUTLINE
I. Definition of Project Management
II. Construction Contractors
III. Changing Environment of the Construction
Industry
IV. Project Construction Management
V. The Project Manager
VI. Discipline and skills required in Project
Management
VII Gantt Chart
PERT/CPM, S-Curve and Cash Flow
VIII. Material Procurement and Delivery
IX. Construction Equipment

Project Management defined…

Project management is defined by the Project
Management Institute’s (PMI) guide to Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) as the
application of knowledge, skills, tools, and
techniques to project activities in which resources
such as man, machine, material, and money are
organized to undertake a scope of work, of given
specification and quality, within constraints of cost
and time, and to manage the risks involved in
undertaking the same so as to deliver the expected
benefits as defined by quantitative and qualitative
objectives.

Construction Contractors
Builders who supervise the execution of construction
projects are traditionally referred to as contractors, or more
appropriately called constructors.

 The general contractor coordinates various tasks for a
project.
 The specialty contractors such as mechanical or
electrical contractors perform the work in their specialties.
 Material and equipment suppliers often act as installation
contractors; they play a significant role in a construction
project since the conditions of delivery of materials and
equipment affect the quality, cost, and timely completion of
the project.

The Changing Environment of the Construction Industry

The construction industry is a conglomeration of diverse fields and
participants that have been loosely lumped together as a sector of the
economy. The construction industry plays a central role in national welfare,
including the development of residential housing, office buildings and
industrial plants, and the restoration of the nation's infrastructure and other
public facilities.

Several factors are particularly noteworthy because of their significant
impacts on the quality, cost and time of construction.

New Technologies

• Computer-aids have improved capabilities for generating quality designs
as well as reducing the time required to produce alternative designs. New
materials not only have enhanced the quality of construction but also have
shortened the time for shop fabrication and field erection.

to communicate for bids and results. Construction quality and cost can be improved with the adoption of new technologies which are proved to be efficient from both the viewpoints of performance and economy. • Real time video from specific construction sites is widely used to illustrate construction progress to interested parties. .• Internet is widely used as a means to foster collaboration among professionals on a project. and to procure necessary goods and services.

cost. Project construction management differs much from management of more traditional activities. It is a unique one-time operation with one major objective – to accomplish an specified tasks in a limited time framework. time.Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope. quality and participation satisfaction. .

Maximization of efficient resource utilization through procurement of labor. budgeting. estimating. Development of effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts among the various participants. contracting and construction in the entire process. . setting performance requirements. Implementation of various operations through proper coordination and control of planning. materials and equipment according to the prescribed schedule and plan. design.The functions of project management for construction generally include the following: Specification of project objectives and plans including delineation of scope. scheduling. and selecting project participants.

The main feature in project construction is the Project Manager who oversee a variety of operations that involves repetitive activities and other various works. is the most important person for the success or failure of a project. . In turn. the project manager receives authority from the management of the organization to mobilize the necessary resources to complete a project. The project manager. organizing and controlling the project. in the broadest sense of the term. The project manager is responsible for planning.

management and first line supervision positive client relationship with client involvement proper project team chemistry quick response to changes engineering managers concerned with the total project. schedules and budgets many changes at various stages of progress lack of good project control . the key factors cited for unsuccessful projects are: ill-defined scope poor management poor planning breakdown in communication between engineering and construction unrealistic scope. not just the engineering elements.  Conversely.Key factors cited for successful projects are: well defined scope extensive early planning good leadership.

3. .Resource requirement must be projected.Project goals must be established and priorities set. 1. and budget must be prepared. progress must be monitored to assure achievement of the goal. execution and control – where inputs from several knowledge areas are put together. Disciplines and skills required in Project Management  Integration: integrates the three main project management processes of planning. 4.Different works must be identified and time estimate must be determined. 2.Once underway.

scope definition. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project to meet the goals and objectives. . scope change management and scope verification.Scope Management: includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required. It consists of authorization. to complete the project successfully. scope planning. and only the work required.

The quantity and the delivery date’s of various materials to be used. 4.The Project Manager’s mission is to plan. .How much and what kind of manpower will be needed. control and accomplish. 3. coordinate .The logical construction sequence that must be followed.When to start and complete the job on time. What the Project Manager needs to know are: 1. 2.

. establishing the calendar. and the regular comparison of progress chart made with the program.Time Management: includes the process required to ensure timely performance of the project. 2. The most important part of the works organization are: 1. activity sequencing.The periodic revision of the chart as circumstances demand. schedule development and time control.The preparation of a comprehensive time and progress chart for the execution of the work. duration estimating. It consists of activity definition.

. which is generally part of the main contract documents.The scheduled dates of commencement and completion of every stage of the main contract and of sub-contracts.The project manager is required to prepare an approved time and progress chart. 2.The time and progress chart must show an analysis of the chief elements and types of construction involved in the project. 1.

5. 2.The owner’s staff and the contractor’s staff should be familiar with the information given in the chart and should constantly strive to carry out the work according to the projected rate of accomplishment.The chart also tends to prevent changes in design and layout with consequent delays and increased in cost.If some operations are to be done by sub-contractors.Besides of being the standard requirement.The target time and date for their completion. . 3. materials and plant requirements. It also provided essential information regarding labor. the chart. automatically shows and offer the following information: 1. 4. they should be notified in advance and given a clear understanding of what exactly is expected from them.The sequence of operations.The rate of which they must be carried out. 6.

Gantt Chart/Bar Chart for ACTIVITY Construction Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Relocate the site and stake Excavation and footing Erection of post and girts Roof framing and roofing Floors and walls Plumbing and electrical Finishing Works Painting & .

making it very popular  Can be useful for initial project planning. . used for planning and scheduling simple projects. which then gives way to the use of networks called PERT and CPM.  is a tool. which takes the form of a horizontal bar chart.Gantt Chart  Henry Gantt developed this tool for displaying the progression of a project.  The advantage of Gantt chart is its simplicity.

equipment and manpower to meet time requirements.  establishes time boundaries for operations with possibilities of shifting resources.  provides a means of speeding up a project without excessive costs for overtime. .  gives a time leeway or float available for each of the non-critical work operations. The information on float time will give the project manager that opportunity to maneuver in their planning and control of the operations. Without the use of PERT/CPM when speeding up the project overtime expenditures may be in total waste.Program Evaluation and Review Technique CPM – Critical Path Method PERT/CPM is a control tool for defining the parts of construction job and then putting them together in a network form.PERT/CPM PERT .  pinpoints the particular work operations whose completion times are responsible for controlling the complete date.

for additional payment will be understood both by the owner and the contractor.  It shows the most advantageous scheduling for all operations. This gives planning information as to time and cost in choosing methods. any claim if any. PERT/CPM offers a means of re-scheduling the operations but still to be completed at the least increase in cost. • In case of change order where the owner would not want to extend the contract time. • With the critical path schedule as revised to reflect the change order. the network can be revised at that stage and new computation is made to determine the new critical operation if any and revised float times determines for the non-critical operations. crew and work hours. late material or equipment delivery. PERT/CPM indicates the earliest starting date for each work operations and sub-contracts for supply and delivery of materials. • It offers a means of assessing the effect on the overall project variations in one operations such as change orders. • In case of serious delay due to weather. . equipment.

duration and sequence are shown below: Activity Duration A 3 days B 5 C 1 D 2 E 2 F 4 G 3 H 1 Time-Phased Diagram C E 3 7 1 2 A B F H 1 2 5 8 9 3 5 4 1 D G 4 6 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Contract Duration .Examine a simple project whose component activities.

It is the span of time from the early start to its early finish or from its late start to its late finish.Fundamental Elements of PERT/CPM Networking Activity – Actual work between events Events – Is a point in time signifying the beginning or end of one or more activities . Critical Activities – the longest path is the critical path (has a zero slack or float) and its activities are called critical activities. Path – is a sequence of activities that leads from starting node to the finishing node. square or any form of geometrical symbols with a number written therein for identification. .indicated on the network as a circle. It is used to distinguish between two or more parallel activities. Dummy Activity – does not represent actual work efforts and do not consume time. Duration of an activity – is the time it takes an activity to be finished.

cost estimating. purchase of materials and supplies. to pay salaries and wages. Construction business requires sufficient funds to cover its operation to maintain equipment. These are current operations where the funds to cover them are called working capital. It consists of resource planning. cash flow and cost control. to cover storage fees. transportation and reserve for other services including SOP. cost-budgeting. .Cost Management: includes the process required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget.

the original detailed cost estimate is typically converted to a project budget. and the project budget is used subsequently as a guide for management. For schedules. the construction plan and the associated cash flow estimates can provide the baseline reference for subsequent project monitoring and control. . For control and monitoring purposes. progress on individual activities and the achievement of milestone completions can be compared with the project schedule to monitor the progress of activities.For cost control on a project.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ACT COST B C A 200 20 B 150 4 3 C 300 A D F D 200 10 30 40 50 3 E 100 3 1 F 150 E 35 2 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B C ACT COST 20 4 3 A 200 D F A B 150 30 40 50 10 3 C 300 3 1 D 200 E 35 E 100 2 F 150 A + 3B 4 .

50 2 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B C ACT COST 20 4 3 A 200 D F A B 150 30 40 50 10 3 C 300 3 1 D 200 E 35 E 100 2 F 150 A + B + D + 1E 312.

50 600 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B C ACT COST 20 4 3 A 200 D F A B 150 10 30 40 50 3 C 300 3 1 D 200 E 35 E 100 2 F 150 A + B + D + E + 1F +1C 3 3 312.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B C ACT COST 20 4 3 A 200 D F A B 150 30 40 50 10 3 C 300 3 1 D 200 E 35 E 100 2 F 150 312.50 600 800 1100 .

800 600 . 2 1100 1000 - 800 . B C 20 4 3 A D F 10 30 40 3 50 3 1 COST E 35 1200 . TIME 0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .50 200 . 600 400 - 312.

600 400 - 312. 800 600 . 2 1100 1000 - 800 . TIME 0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .50 200 . B C 20 4 3 A D F 10 30 40 3 50 3 1 COST E 35 1200 .

B C 20 4 3 A D F 10 30 40 3 50 3 1 COST E 35 1200 . TIME 0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 2 1000 - 800 - 600 - 400 - 200 .

TIME 0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .50 600 800 1100 COST 1200 - 1000 - 800 - 600 - 400 - 200 . COST 312.

72% 100% COST % 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 - 20 - TIME 0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .50 600 800 1100 28. 312.41% 54.54% 72.

the specification of quality requirements in the design and contract documentation becomes extremely important. It consists of determining the required condition. With the attention to conformance as the measure of quality during the construction process. quality assurance and quality control. Projects must be delivered not only on time and on budget. ensure that you actively manage project benefits. quality planning. you keep client quality at the forefront – and you won't waste precious time and resources trying to achieve an inappropriate level of quality. . By continuously referring to the benefits that the project will provide. but also to specification (this is what “quality” means in project management). As part of this.► Quality Management: includes the process required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

The people on your project team can make or break the final outcome.knowledge of effects of work upon other areas and knowledge of related areas which have influence on assigned work.demonstrated knowledge of requirements. ► It consists of organization planning. techniques and skills involved in doing the job and in applying these to increase productivity.  Quantity of Work . . Here. staff acquisition.  Related Work Knowledge .volume of acceptable work  Job Knowledge .calibre of work produced or accomplished. getting the right mix of interpersonal and political skills is just as important as the right technical skills. Human Resource Management: includes the process required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. Labor Characteristics Performance analysis is a common tool for assessing worker quality and contribution. Factors that might be evaluated include:  Quality of Work . methods.

superiors and others adequately informed. Analytical Ability . Resource Utilization . Interpersonal Skills .effectiveness in thinking through a problem and reaching sound conclusions. associates. Dependability . .ability to delineate project needs and locate. Communicative Ability .ability to take effective action without being told. decisions and actions.reliability in assuming and carrying out commitments and obligations.knowledge of effects of work upon other areas and knowledge of related areas which have influence on assigned work.effectiveness in relating in an appropriate and productive manner to others. Initiative . Judgment . Related Work Knowledge .soundness of conclusions. Ability to Work Under Pressure . plan and effectively use all resources available.effectiveness in using oral and written communications and in keeping subordinates.ability to meet tight deadlines and adapt to changes.

Delegating .ability to be sensitive to the needs of minorities.ability to select.effectiveness in delegating work appropriately.ability to handle confidential information appropriately and to exercise care in safeguarding sensitive information.Security Sensitivity . train and appraise personnel.has knowledge of good safety practices and demonstrates awareness of own personal safety and the safety of others. Development People .ability to seek out. Safety Consciousness . Diversity (Equal Employment Opportunity) . generate and implement profit-making ideas.ability to anticipate needs. plan and schedule work and measure results.ability to develop in others the willingness and desire to work towards common objectives. set goals and standards. . set standards of performance. and provide motivation to grow in their capacity. Profit and Cost Sensitivity . Leadership . forecast conditions. females and other protected groups and to demonstrate affirmative action in responding to these needs. Planning Effectiveness .

It consists of communication planning. It consists of risk identification. response development and risk control. analyzing. and responding to project risks. effective project communication means communicating with the right people at the right time and in the right way. information distribution. ► Risk Management: includes the process concerned with identifying. . risk quantification and impact. As with most situations. progress reporting and administrative closure.► Communication Management: includes the process required to ensure proper collection and dissemination of project information. project meetings.

Procurement Management: includes the process required to acquire goods and services from outside the performing project team or organization. . bids and quotations. the owner may initiate the procurement procedure even before the selection of a constructor in order to avoid shortages and delays. shipping and receiving documents. It consists of procurement planning. solicitation planning. Material Procurement and Delivery The main sources of information for feedback and control of material procurement are requisitions. and invoices. source selection. For projects involving the large scale use of critical resources. solicitation. contract administration and contract closeout. purchase orders and subcontracts.

. which are usually encountered in large quantities in construction.  Bulk materials refer to materials in their natural or semi-processed state. . wet concrete mix. Some overlapping and rehandling in the procurement process is unavoidable.. (2) standard off-the-shelf materials. and (3) fabricated members or units.  Standard piping and valves are typical examples of standard off-the-shelf materials which are used extensively in the chemical processing industry.Material Procurement and Delivery. The materials for delivery to and from a construction site may be broadly classified as : (1) bulk materials. the constructor will handle the procurement to shop for materials with the best price/performance characteristics specified by the designer. such as earthwork to be excavated. Under ordinary circumstances. the delivery process is relatively simple. Since standard off-the-shelf materials can easily be stockpiled. etc. but it should be minimized to insure timely delivery of the materials in good condition.

The process of delivery. including transportation. field storage and installation will be different for these classes of materials. . Fabricated members such as steel beams and columns for buildings are pre-processed in a shop to simplify the field erection procedures. The equipment needed to handle and haul these classes of materials will also be different.

Choice of Equipment and Standard Production Rates Typically. graders. and can be broadly classified according to two basic functions: (1) operators such as cranes. construction equipment is used to perform essentially repetitive operations.Construction Equipment The selection of the appropriate type and size of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort and thus the job-site productivity of a project. the cycle of a piece of equipment is a sequence of tasks which is repeated to produce a unit of output. etc. ready mixed concrete truck. . etc. which stay within the confines of the construction site. In both cases. It is therefore important for site managers and construction planners to be familiar with the characteristics of the major types of equipment most commonly used in construction. which transport materials to and from the site. and (2) haulers such as dump trucks.

Availability of equipment: Productivity of excavation activities will diminish if the equipment used to perform them is available but not the most adequate. excavation massive. . the distance of transportation. it is beneficial to select equipment with proper characteristics and a size most suitable for the work conditions at a construction site. Activity time constraints: Shortage of time for excavation may force contractors to increase the size or numbers of equipment for activities related to excavation. The most adequate equipment to perform one of these activities is not the most adequate to perform the others. or smaller excavators in greater number. for examples. factors that could affect the selection of excavators include: Size of the job: Larger volumes of excavation will require larger excavators. In excavation for building construction. and the means of transportation. and excavation for the elements of foundation.In order to increase job-site productivity. Cost of transportation of equipment: This cost depends on the size of the job. Type of excavation: Principal types of excavation in building projects are cut and/or fill.

Weather and temperature: Rain. snow and severe temperature conditions affect the job-site productivity of labor and equipment.Soil characteristics: The type and condition of the soil is important when choosing the most adequate equipment since each piece of equipment has different outputs for different soils. Location of dumping areas: The distance between the construction site and dumping areas could be relevant not only for selecting the type and number of haulers. but also the type of excavators. . Space constraints: The performance of equipment is influenced by the spatial limitations for the movement of excavators. Characteristics of haul units: The size of an excavator will depend on the haul units if there is a constraint on the size and/or number of these units. Moreover. one excavation pit could have different soils at different stratums. Geometric characteristics of elements to be excavated: Functional characteristics of different types of equipment makes such considerations necessary.

Purchase it 2.SOURCES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Contractors and other users of construction equipment frequently are concerned with the decision as to whether to purchase or rent equipment. There are at least three methods under which a contractor may secure the use of construction equipment. . Rent it with an option to purchase it at a later date. Under certain conditions. it is financially advantageous to purchase. whereas under other conditions it is more economical and satisfactory to rent it. Rent it 3. He may: 1.

. 2. purchased equipment should be kept in better mechanical condition.It is more likely to be available for use when needed. including the following: 1.It is more economical if the equipment is used sufficiently.The purchase of equipment as compared with renting it has several advantages.Because the ownership should assure better maintenance and care. 3.

The ownership of equipment designed primarily for a given type of work. other work requiring different types of equipment might be available at a higher profit. .It may be more expensive than renting. whereas. thereby increasing the cost of production unnecessarily.The purchase of equipment may require a substantial investment of money or credit that may be needed for other purposes.The ownership of equipment might influence a contractor to continue using the equipment beyond its economical life.Among the disadvantages of owning equipment are the following: 1. 5.The ownership of equipment may influence a contractor to continue using obsolete equipment after superior equipment has been introduced. 3. 4. 2.

No need to hire operators/mechanics. 3.ADVANTAGES OF RENTING 1.Small money lay-out 2.No need for maintenance support (vehicles and equipment) 6.No worry of equipment breakdown because of immediate replacement from contractor’s fleet.No financing interest 5.No money lay-out for building workshop 4. .

CONCLUSION: Construction project management is the art and practice of bringing together disparate resources and people to build a high quality structure in a safe. . timely and cost-effective manner. Effective project management can mean the difference between success and failure in a construction project .

. .Thank you.